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Cambodia Profiles

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Tips:Country ProfileCambodia relationsFirst, the political relationsI Cambodia and China has a friendship with a long traditi
 Country Profile

Cambodia relations

First, the political relations

I Cambodia and China has a friendship with a long tradition. On July 19, 1958, the two countries established formal diplomatic relations. For a long time, generations of Chinese leaders and King Sihanouk established profound friendship, and laid a solid foundation for long-term stable development of bilateral relations. In November 2000, President Jiang Zemin paid a state visit to Cambodia, the two leaders reached broad consensus on bilateral relations and issues of common concern, the two sides signed the "China-Cambodian Joint Statement on Bilateral Cooperation. Further development of the traditional good-neighborly, friendly and cooperative relations on the basis of the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence. In November 2002, Premier Zhu Rongji's visit to Cambodia, the two leaders agreed to agriculture, infrastructure construction and human resources development as key areas of cooperation between the two countries, China and absolve all Cambodian maturity debt. In April 2006, Premier Wen Jiabao's visit to Cambodia. The two sides issued a joint communique, announced the establishment of a "comprehensive partnership". 2008 marks the 50th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between China and Cambodia, and China-Cambodia Friendship Year ", the two sides held a series of celebration activities. In August 2008, King Norodom Sihamoni, Sihanouk too Wong and Monineath Queen Mother to China to attend the opening ceremony of the Olympic Games. In October, Prime Minister Hun Sen to attend the Fifth China - ASEAN Expo and the 7th ASEM Summit in China.

 

Second, the economic and trade relations

 

The rapid development of China-Cambodian economic and trade relations between the two countries continue to broaden the areas of cooperation. In 1996, the two countries signed a trade promotion and investment protection agreements, and in 2000 the establishment of bilateral economic and trade cooperation committee. 2008 bilateral trade amounted to $ 1.13 billion, a year-on-year growth of 21.3%, ahead of time to achieve the 2010 target of bilateral trade volume reached 10 billion dollars. In 2010, the China-Cambodian bilateral trade amounted to $ 1.441 billion, a year-on-year growth of 52.6%,

Country Profile

Name of the country :the Kingdom of Cambodia

area:181,035 square kilometers

Population:14,400,000.There are more than 20 ethnic minorities. Khmer is the main minority, which takes 80% of the total population.The minorities are Zhan,Punon,Lao,Thai and Stin.The Khmer is common language, which is as the official language like English and French.

Buddhism is the state religion, more than 93% of the residents believe in Buddhism and Islam, a few civic resident believe in Catholic.Chinese and Chinese overseas are 700,000.

The capital is Phnom Penh,which has a population of about 102 million.

Furher of country:His Majesty Norodom Sihamoni, King of Cambodia.

Important festivals:(1)Independence Day on November 9th. On November 9th 1953,The Kingdom of Cambodia get rid of the French colonial rule and declared for independence, when was designated as the National Day of Cambodia and the Ministry Day.(2) The King's Birthday: May 14th.The whole country have a celebration for three days. (3)The New Year of Buddhist calendar : April 13 to 15.(4)Imperial farming Festival:on the 4th day of Buddhism calendar, the king or his representative hold a symbolic farming ceremony in the adjoining palace and pray for harvest in the coming year.(5) Water Festival (also called Dragon Boat Festival): the Cambodian traditional festival.On November 13 to 15 when rainy season changes to dry season,the people of Cambodia hold a competetion of Dragon Boat on the Tonle Sap River near Royal Palace to express the thankful emotion of Tonle Sap River and Mei Gong River.

 October 31, the national celebration of one day.(6)The old king Sihanouk's Birthday: October 31, when the whole country celebrate it for one day.

Brief Introduction: It is located in the southern part of the middle south Peninsula.The part of eastern and south-eastern border with Vietnam, and northern Laos, adjacent to the west and northwest of Thailand,and its southwest near the Gulf of Siam. The coastline of it is about 460 km. it is a tropical monsoon climate, with an average annual temperature of 24 °C.

Politics:In July 2008, Cambodia held its fourth national elections, the People's Party won the elections again.On September 24, Cambodia held its new meeting of the new Congress. On the 25th, Congress passed the list of congressional leaders and members of the Cabinet, Heng Samrin re-elected as the Congress President, Hun Sen re-elected as the Prime Minister.

Constitution:Cambodia's current constitution was adopted by the Constituent Assembly in Cambodia on September 21, and King Sihanouk signed into law on September 24 in the same year.On March 4, 1999, the second session of Congress passed a constitutional amendment, the new constitution have been added from 14 chapters of 149 items to 16 chapters 158 items.The Constitution stipulates that the state system in Cambodia is a constitutional monarchy,to implemente liberal democracy and free-market economy, and establish legislative, administrative, judicial separation of powers.The King is a head all his life, the supreme commander of the armed forces,and the symbol of national unity and eternal.The king has the right to declare a general amnesty, and he has the right to dissolve the parliament.as long as the recommendations of the Prime Minister and the agree of the Congress President.When the King is unable to solve the affairs like the governance or be out of the country, the President of the Senate can solve it as the king.The throne is not hereditary.After the king's death, retirement or abdication, the new king will be elected from the Prime Minister Buddhist factions Sangharaja, the Senate and the Congress to the Chairmen and Vice-Chairmen of 9 people throne Selection Committee within 7 days from the the Anton,Norodom and Sisowath three royal descendants.

The Parliament:Congress is the highest authority of the State of Cambodia and legislative bodies.Each session for 5 years.The first Congress was founded in 1993, which is composed of 120 members,includes 58 people from fenxinbike, 51people from the People's Party,10 people from the Buddhist Liberal Democratic Party, 1 people from Murray Nagorno-Karabakh party.The chairman of the People's Party ,xie xin,also served as the chairman of the parliment.The Congress is consisted of nine special committees.The Fourth Congress established in September 2008,The current Congress is composed of 90 people from The People's Party,26 from Sam Rainsy Party,3 from the Human Rights Party, 2 from Ranariddh Party and 2from Funcinpec.Heng Samrin is as the Chairman.Nguyen Nirvana is as the First Vice-President, the saichong is as the Second Vice-President.

Senate:The first Senate was established on March 25 1999 ,for a period of six years.the Cambodian Constitution rules that the law must be progressively consideration by Congress, the Senate & the Constitutional Council,Finally, be effctive after the king signed.

Senate President's concierge order came after the king, but before the Congress President and the Prime Minister,so he is the country's second leader,and do as the first leader when the king is out.The first Senate consists of 61 senators, from People's Party, 21 from FUNCINPEC and the 7 from Sam Rainsy Party, and another two are appointed by the King.the chairman xiexin of the People Party is as the chairman of senate.Sisowath Givanmonila  and baobensirui works as the first and the second chairman.There are nine special committees ucder it.

The government:The fourth Cambodian government was set up in September 2008, and Hun Sen is as the prime minister.it has 10 deputy Prime Minister, 16 secretary of state, 26 ministries and two of the Secretariat of State.The main members of it list as follows:the prime minister hun sen,the vice-prime minister Sar Kheng,(Sok An)(Tea Banh)(Hor Namhong)、(Men Sam AnBin Chhin)(Nhek Bunchhay)(Keat Chhon)、 Yim Chhay Ly)、(Ke Kim Yan);(Im Chhun Lim)(Chhay Than)(Cham Prasidh)、(Mok Mareth)、 Nhim Vanda)、(Tao Seng Hours)、(Khun Haing)(Ly Thuch,Kol Pheng)、 Sun Chanthol)、 (Veng Sereyvuth) Nuth Sokom)、 Om Yentieng)、 Ieng Moly)、 Var Kimhong)、 Yim Nol La)。

Administrative division: the country is divided into 23 provinces and one municipality.

The Judiciary:the court is composed of Subordinate Courts, the Court of Appeal and the Supreme Court.The Supreme Council of Judges is the administrative department of the judicial system, which is responsible for overseeing the work of the court, with the selection, appointment and removal of the terms of reference of the judges.The Supreme Council of Judges is composed of nine persons by the King, who is the President of the Supreme Court, the Attorney General, the President of the Court of Appeal and the Attorney General, the President of the Court of Phnom Penh and the Attorney-General and two judges.

After the King Sihanouk resigned from the presidency in February 2003, the President of the Council is vacancy.the president of the Supreme Court is Dit Munty.There is no independent Procuratorate in Cambodia.

courts at all levels to exercise prosecutorial functions.

Political parties:A total of more than 40 political parties in the 1993 general election.39parties in 1998,23 parties in 2003.11 parties in 2008.the main parties is as follows:

(1)Cambodia People’s Party:The party formerly known as the Cambodian People's Revolutionary Party which is established on June 28, 1951.And it changed to its present name in October 1991.the present party chairman is Chea Sim, Vice Chairman is Hun Sen, Honorary President is Heng Samrin. Now the party have 4.1 million menbers.In the 2008 general election the People's Party  won again, for 90 parliamentary seats,Hun Sen reelected prime minister.

(2)FUNCINPEC Party:Party formerly known as the "fight for Cambodia's independence, neutrality, peace and cooperation of the United National Front,which is short for FUNCINPEC. And it was created in 1981 By Sihanouk, now it has 400,000 members.In the 1993 general election ,the orders of party victory to become the largest party.Ranariddh served as the first prime minister in the government.

(3)Sam Rainsy Party:Formerly known as the Khmer Nation Party.It created on November 9, 1995, and changed to its present name in 1998.

Sam Rainsy works as the chairman.it has 25 million existing members.

it got 3 townships (districts) in the township elections held in early 2002 and 24 congressional seats in 2003 election,26 in 2008.

[The important people] King Norodom Sihamoni (Norodom Sihamoni): He is the eldest son for the king Norodom·Sihanouk and the Queen Mother Monineath.He was born in 1953 in Phnom Penh.In the last century,from 1960s to the mid-1970s,He was learning dance, music and drama in the Czech capital Prague.He lived in France in the 1980s, and served as a professor of classical dance and artistic Mozart Conservatory in Paris, and is also the Khmer Dance Society leaders and Ballet artistic director. In 1993, he served as Cambodia's Permanent Mission to UNESCO Ambassador. He took the throne in October 2004.In August 2005 he paid a state visit to China.He was a public figure without party affiliation.He is unmarried.

Chea Sim: Cambodian Senate President, Chairman of the People's Party. November 15, 1932 Born in Prey Veng province. 1952 to participate in the struggle of resisting law enforcement. In 1991, he was elected President of the People's Party. After the 1993 general election was elected Vice-Chairman of the Constituent Assembly, in October of the same year, he was elected Chairman of the first session of Congress. March 1999 served as the Chairman of the first session of the Senate of Cambodia. March 20, 2006 as the second session of the Senate President. Official visit to China in October 2008. Three sons and two daughters.

Hun Sen: Cambodia's fourth Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Vice-Chairman of the People's Party. April 4, 1951 was born in a peasant family in Kampong Cham province. September 1990 to participate in the Supreme National Council of Cambodia. October 1991, he was elected Vice-Chairman of the People's Party. Co-Chair of the Cambodian temporary national government in July 1993 as the second Prime Minister of the Royal Government of Cambodia since September, he was joint commander-in-chief of the Khmer Wang Jiajun. November 1998, he was appointed Prime Minister of Cambodia's second session of the Kingdom. Cambodian Third Kingdom government in July 2004 as Prime Minister. September 2008 reelection as Prime Minister of the Government of the Kingdom. Joint visit to China in 1994 with the First Prime Minister Ranariddh. Working visit to China in 1996. Since 2004, Hun Sen visited China eight times, which in October 2008 at the China - ASEAN Expo and the 7th ASEM Summit. Love reading, hi delve into the theory of Cambodia Decade and Cambodia 130 books, specializes in creative folk songs. Hun Sen of the Cambodian Red Cross president the Lady Wen Rani • children five.

Heng Samrin: The chairman of Cambodian National Assembly, the Honorary Chairman of People's Party.He was born in 1934 in Cambodia Kompong Cham province. 1991, he was appointed as Honorary President of the Cambodian People's Party. Sihanouk was appointed as a senior adviser to the king in 1993. In 1998, he was appointed as the First Vice-Chairman in the Congress.In 2004, He was re-elected as the Congress First Vice-Chairman.In March ,2006, he became the Chairman of the Congress.In September 2008, he was appointed as the Chairman of the Fourth Congress. He was officially visit China in August 2007.He has Four children.

Sam Rainsy: The chairman of the opposition party, the Sam Rainsy Party.He was born in 1949 in Phnom Penh. He joined Funcinpec Front the mid-1980s. Back to Cambodia after the signing of the Paris Agreement. Together with Ranariddh,represented as the party as  a member of the Supreme National Council,and became the backbone of the party. He was elected as a congressman in 1993, and served as the first session of the Joint Government Minister of State and Finance Minister. After do not agreed with Ranariddh’s political views,he was expelled from the party,and removal of the Chancellor of the Exchequer from office in 1995. After that,he announced the establishment of the Khmer Nation Party, with himself as the President.In 1998,it change name to Sam Rainsy Party.His wife is Mrs. Diao Long • Suoma La.

[Economy] Cambodia is a traditional agricultural country,which is weak in industrial base. It is one of the world's least developed countries. The poor accouonted for 28% of the total population. Cambodian government carried out the opening-up of a free market economy, promoted the implementation of economic privatization and trade liberalization,and thought the economic development, poverty eradication as the primary task. Agriculture, processing industry, tourism, infrastructure construction and personnel training were considered as priority areas of development. The government pushed forward the reform in the administration, finance, military and judiciary to improve its efficiency to improve the investment environment. Some certain results had achieved.

In 2009 Cambodian GDP was about $ 10.94 billion with a year-on-year growth of 2.1%, with a per capita GDP of $ 769. The value of agriculture, industry, services industry accounted for 34.2% of GDP, 21%, 37.8% each. The country's foreign exchange reserves was $ 1.758 billion and the value of exports was $ 3.9 billion and the value of imports was $ 5.45 billion, fiscal expenditure of approximately $ 1.714 billion, and had got $ 520 million  international assistance. The inflation rate was -1.2%. The average exchange rate of the U.S. dollar against the Cambodian currency 1:4100. The growth of GDP was 5.9% in 2010.

[Resource] Mineral resources are mainly about gold, phosphates, gem and oil, as well as a small amount of iron, coal. Forestry, fisheries, and fruit is rich. Cambodia is rich in precious teak, ironwood, red sandalwood, ebony, white Mao and pther tropical trees as well as some kinds of bamboo. The forest is mainly distributed in the mountainous areas of the east, north and west. Timber reserves of over 1.1 billion cubic meters. Tonle Sap Lake is the largest natural freshwater fisheries in Southeast Asia,which is known as "Fish Lake”. Southwest coast are also important fishing grounds,which is prolific in fish and shrimp. In recent years, due to ecological imbalance and overfishing, aquatic resources are reduce.

[Industry] The basis of industry is weak and the categories are monotony. Since Cambodia carried out the free market economy at the end of 1991, the state-owned enterprises in general were leasing by the businessmen at home and abroad. The garment industry was an emerging industry, and had a certain size.The value of Cambodian industrial output in 2009 accounted for about 21% of GDP, which the textile and clothing industry accounted for 9.2% of the GDP. The construction industry accounted for 5.6% of GDP, electricity and water supply accounted for 0.5% of GDP, mining processing accounted for 0.4% of GDP. Cambodia is heavily dependent on the textile and clothing industry.

[Agricultural] Agriculture is the largest pillar industry of the Cambodian economy. Agricultural population accounted for 85% of the total population,and 78% of the country's total labor force.The area of arable land is ​​6.3 million hectares ,among which the irrigable area is ​​374,000 hectares, accounted for 18%. The main agricultural products are rice, corn, beans, potatoes, and so on. Along the Mekong, Tonle Sap, Bassac River as the main production regions of rice. The Cambodian agricultural output value accounted for about 34.2% of GDP in 2009, which the rice cultivation accounted for 10.9% of GDP, the other planting was about 8.2%, livestock and poultry was about (4.8%) 7.3%, fisheries, forestry accounted for 2.9%. The rice-growing area was about ​​2.298 million hectares, paddy output was about 5.906 million tons. Freshwater fish production was about 365,000 tons.

[Services] The Service Industry was still developping rapidly. Tourism is the driving force that led Cambodian development of service industry. The rapid development of the tourism industry has led to the development of its related industries. The services industry accounted for 37.8% of GDP in 2009,which was much higher than the industrial output in Cambodia.The transportation accounted for 7.3% of GDP, retail and wholesale accounted for 8.8%, hotels and restaurants accounted for 3.8%. Residential investment accounted for 6.3%, health care and education accounted for 1.8% , Finance, insurance and real estate accounted for 1.4%, and other services sector accounted for 8.3%.

[Tourism] Since 2000, the Cambodian government vigorously promote the "open skies" policy,which supports, encourages foreign airlines to open direct flights to Phnom Penh and Angkor resort route. In 2002, the Cambodian government to increase funding of tourism, stepped up to restore monuments, develop new attractions, improve the tourism environment. In 2009 foreign tourists to Cambodia was 2,160,000 people,and Chinese tourists was recach to 128,000 people. The main tourist spots is the world-famous Angkor, Phnom Penh and Sihanoukville andi so on.

[Transportation] Transportation is mainly rely on road and inland waterway. The main lines are concentrated in the central plains region, and the Tonle Sap River Basin. The northern and southern mountain is block in traffic.

Highway:The total length of National Highway is 30,000 km. There are four main highways: Highway 1 (Phnom Penh to Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam), Highway 4 (Phnom Penh to Sihanoukville), Highway 5 (Phnom Penh via Battambang to the Thai border), Highway 6 (Phnom Penh via pounds with Siem Reap to Angkor).

Shipping: Inland shipping is mainly to the Mekong, Tonle Sap Lake. The major river ports are Phnom Penh, Kampong Cham and Kampong Chhnang. In the rainy season 4000 tons vessels may be traced back to Phnom Penh along the Mekong River, the dry season navigable 2,000-ton freighter. Sihanoukville is a international port.

Railway: There are two railways: Phnom Penh - Poipet, a total length of 385 km, can pass to Bangkok; Phnom Penh - Sihanoukville, 270 kilometers in length,which is the main artery of transportation, but the railway fell into disrepair,which the transport capacity is low.

Air Transport: The main airline company in Cambodian are Siem Reap Airways, Angkor Airlines. There are five international routes: Phnom Penh - Bangkok, Phnom Penh - Ho Chi Minh City, Phnom Penh - Vientiane, Phnom Penh - Kuala Lumpur, Phnom Penh - Singapore. The main routes that foreign airlines runs in Cambodia: Phnom Penh - Bangkok, Phnom Penh - Guangzhou, Hong Kong, Phnom Penh - Siem Reap - Bangkok, Phnom Penh - Shanghai, Phnom Penh - Singapore, Phnom Penh - Taipei, Phnom Penh - Kaohsiung, Phnom Penh - Ho Chi Minh City, Phnom Penh - Vientiane, Phnom Penh - Phuket route. The two international airports are Phnom Penh International Airport and Siem Reap airport. Sihanoukville, Battambang, Stung Treng airports for domestic airport, scheduled flights access can take off and land in small aircraft.

[External Trade]In September 2003, Cambodia had joined the World Trade Organization. according to statistics from National Bank of Cambodia, in 2009, Cambodia imported $ 5.45 billion and exports of $ 3.9 billion,with a year-on-year decline of 20.5% and 20.4%, respectively. Annual Cambodian garment exports were $ 2.29 billion, $ 1.328 billion of other commodities, exports $ 287 million of re-exports trade; imported garment raw materials of $ 1.082 billion ,$ 1.761 billion of fuel material and other food and beverage, chemical, pharmaceutical, cosmetics, automotive and building materials 23.64 billion U.S. dollars, imports of re-exports of $ 239 million.

[Military]On June 23, 1993, Cambodia’s forces is composed of three factions of the armed forces of the armed forces, Sihanouk was the supreme commander.On September 24, 1993 Its name was changed to the royal cambodian army,which was divided into five military districts and a special Military Region, 12 main infantry divisions, a total strength of about 130,000 people.In  2008 Boer Sharon succeeded the cap gold extension of Commander-in-Chief of the royal cambodian army. After Cambodia had began peace reconstruction,it developed a phased disarmament plan,which would cut the total number of armed forces to 6 to 7 million people in 2009.

On October 25, 2006, Cambodia Congress passed the draft of law of conscription, which said the provisions of the 18-year-old to 30-year-old Khmer male citizens have an obligation to perform military service. In 2008, total strength of the Cambodian army was about 11 million people with the military spending of $ 82 million.

Culture and Education

[Education] According to the statistics from Cambodian Ministry of Education, there were a total of 2,772 kindergartens with 138,038 admission children, 6476 primary schools with 2,326,152 pupils. 1321 secondary schools with898,594. students,and 63 universities (18 public universities, 45 private universities)with 11 million people students.

[Media] most widely circulated newspaper are The light of Cambodia "(Khmer, Daily)," De Volkskrant "(People's Party, the party newspaper, Khmer)," Island of Peace (Khmer ,Daily), " Cambodia Daily (English, Khmer), "Phnom Penh Post" (English, biweekly), Cambodia Time "(English, Khmer, weekly). the three influential Chinese newspaper are Huashang Daily, Cambodia and China Daily "and" Sin Chew Daily ", there were three influential English newspapers, a French newspaper. 

Cambodia Novosti (AKP) official Newswires, was founded in 1980

Cambodia currently has 29 radio stations.There are five official radio stations.Among them,the FM96 radio station is owned by government which is broadcasting 19 hours a day. There are seven television stations, national television (it was built in 1966, and mainly about Cambodian language programs); Fairy (assets of People's Party party); Channel 9 (privately-owned); Channel 5 (military units); Capital of Channel 3 (official start-up); Bayon Terrace (privately-owned); the CTN television (privately-owned). Cable television station: Cambodia cable television stations, cable television station in Phnom Penh.

[External Relations] Cambodia is to pursue an independent, peaceful, permanently neutral and non-aligned foreign policy. It against foreign aggression and interference, and establish and develop friendly relations with all countries on the basis of the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence. It advocates mutual respect for sovereignty and resolve border issues with neighboring countries by peaceful negotiations . After the establish of the new government of Cambodia,it determined external policy of integrating into the international community, gaining the foreign aid to develop economic .It strengthens the good-neighborly and friendly cooperation with neighboring countries, and improves and develops relations with Western countries and international institutions to strive for international economic assistance.

So far,Cambodia has established diplomatic relations with 107 countries, among them ,there are 62 countries sent an ambassador to Cambodia,and 28 countries have a permanent embassy in Phnom Penh ; Cambodia has sent an ambassador to 22 countries, opened eight consulates, and appointed three Honorary Consul. On April 30, 1999 Cambodia joined the ASEAN.

[Relationship with China] Premier Zhou Enlai and the head of state Prince Norodom Sihanouk of Cambodia got to know in April 1955 Bandung Conference,which became a new beginning of the China-Cambodian friendly relationship. On July 19, 1958, the two countries established formal diplomatic relations.In 1950s and 1960s, Premier Zhou Enlai, Liu Shaoqi President paid a visit to Cambodia, Prince Norodom Sihanouk's visited to China for about six times, and twice in China, leaded the Cambodian people fighted for national independence, national liberation,which had a strongly support from Chinese Government and people. Since the new government of Cambodia was established in 1993, there are frequent high-level visits between China and Cambodia.

 


Keyword: Cambodia Profiles

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