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Myanmar Profile

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Tips:Country Profile● China-Myanmar relationsChina and Myanmar are friendly nearby countries with a long history of traditio
 Country Profile

 

China-Myanmar relations

 

China and Myanmar are friendly nearby countries with a long history of traditional friendship between the two peoples. Since ancient times, the people of the two countries called each other just like “paukphaw "(brothers). The two countries formally established diplomatic relations on June 8, 1950. In the 1950s, China and Myanmar jointly initiated the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence. In 1960s,with the spirit of friendly compromise and consultations, the two countries solved the border issue left over from history with a satisfactory solution. It set a good example for border problem between countries. For a long time, China and Myanmar are good neighbores and maintained good cooperation in international and regional affairs. The bilateral relations have developed steadily.

 

The leaders of China and Myanmar have mutual visits tradition. The older generation of Chinese leaders: Chairman Liu Shaoqi, Premier Zhou Enlai, vice premier Chen Yi visited Myanmar. The Chairman of Myanmar Wu Ne Win, President Wushan You and Premier Wu Maung Maung card also visited China many times. Premier Zhou Enlai paid nine times visits to Myanmar and Wu Ne Win paid twelve two times visits to China which has become a favourite tale.

 

Bilateral economic and trade relations & economic and technical cooperation

 

The cooperation in economic and trade between China and Burma has made a considerable development. The areas of cooperation expanded from the original simple trade and economic aid to the project contracting, investment and multilateral cooperation. The bilateral trade volume is increasing year by year. Bilateral trade amounted to $ 4.444 billion in 2010 with an increase of 53.2% over last year. China mainly export Burma complete sets of equipment, machinery and electrical products, textiles, motorcycle parts and chemical products and mainly import logs, sawn timber, agricultural and mineral from Myanmar.

 

Bilateral trade agreements: in 1971, China and Myanmar signed a trade agreement, the mutual granting of most-favored-nation status. In 1994, China and Myanmar government signed a "memorandum of understanding on border trade”. In 1997, China and Myanmar government signed the agreement on the establishment of a joint working committee for economic, trade and technical cooperation. In 2001, China and Myanmar government signed encourage the promotion and protection of investment agreements.

 

Country Profile

Republic of the Union of Myanmar

Various ethnic Burmese and ethnic minority city-states or kingdoms occupied the present borders through the 19th century. Over a period of 62 years (1824-1886), Britain conquered Burma and incorporated the country into its Indian Empire. Burma was administered as a province of India until 1937 when it became a separate, self-governing colony; in 1948, Burma attained independence from the Commonwealth. Gen. NE WIN dominated the government from 1962 to 1988, first as military ruler, then as self-appointed president, and later as political kingpin. In September 1988, the military deposed NE WIN and established a new ruling junta. Multiparty legislative elections in 1990 resulted in the main opposition party - the National League for Democracy (NLD) - winning a landslide victory. Instead of handing over power, the junta placed NLD leader (and Nobel Peace Prize recipient) AUNG SAN SUU KYI (ASSK) under house arrest from 1989 to 1995, 2000 to 2002, and from May 2003 to November 2010. In late September 2007, the ruling junta brutally suppressed protests over increased fuel prices led by prodemocracy activists and Buddhist monks, killing at least 13 people and arresting thousands for participating in the demonstrations. In early May 2008, Burma was struck by Cyclone Nargis, which left over 138,000 dead and tens of thousands injured and homeless. Despite this tragedy, the junta proceeded with its May constitutional referendum, the first vote in Burma since 1990. Parliamentary elections held in November 2010, considered flawed by many in the international community, saw the ruling Union Solidarity and Development Party garnering over 75% of the seats. Parliament convened in January 2011 and selected former Prime Minister THEIN SEIN as president. Although the vast majority of national-level appointees named by THEIN SEIN are former or current military officers, the government has initiated a series of political and economic reforms leading to a substantial opening of the long-isolated country. These reforms have included a senior-level dialogue with ASSK, re-registering the NLD as a political party, enabling party members, including ASSK, to contest parliamentary by-elections on 1 April 2012, the release of many (but not all) political prisoners, preliminary peace agreements with some armed ethnic groups, a reduction in media censorship, and an increasingly open debate in the Parliament.

Location:

 

Southeastern Asia, bordering the Andaman Sea and the Bay of Bengal, between Bangladesh and Thailand

Geographic coordinates:

 

22 00 N, 98 00 E

Map references:

 

Southeast Asia

Area:

 

total: 676,578 sq km

country comparison to the world: 40

land: 653,508 sq km

water: 23,070 sq km

Area - comparative:

 

slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries:

 

total: 5,876 km

border countries: Bangladesh 193 km, China 2,185 km, India 1,463 km, Laos 235 km, Thailand 1,800 km

Coastline:

 

1,930 km

Maritime claims:

 

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin

Climate:

 

tropical monsoon; cloudy, rainy, hot, humid summers (southwest monsoon, June to September); less cloudy, scant rainfall, mild temperatures, lower humidity during winter (northeast monsoon, December to April)

Terrain:

 

central lowlands ringed by steep, rugged highlands

Elevation extremes:

 

lowest point: Andaman Sea 0 m

highest point: Hkakabo Razi 5,881 m

Natural resources:

 

petroleum, timber, tin, antimony, zinc, copper, tungsten, lead, coal, marble, limestone, precious stones, natural gas, hydropower

Land use:

 

arable land: 14.92%

permanent crops: 1.31%

other: 83.77% (2005)

Irrigated land:

 

22,500 sq km (2003)

Total renewable water resources:

 

1,045.6 cu km (1999)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):

 

total: 33.23 cu km/yr (1%/1%/98%)

per capita: 658 cu m/yr (2000)

Natural hazards:

 

destructive earthquakes and cyclones; flooding and landslides common during rainy season (June to September); periodic droughts

Environment - current issues:

 

deforestation; industrial pollution of air, soil, and water; inadequate sanitation and water treatment contribute to disease

Environment - international agreements:

 

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:

 

strategic location near major Indian Ocean shipping lanes

Nationality:

 

noun: Burmese (singular and plural)

adjective: Burmese

Ethnic groups:

 

Burman 68%, Shan 9%, Karen 7%, Rakhine 4%, Chinese 3%, Indian 2%, Mon 2%, other 5%

Languages:

 

Burmese (official)

note: minority ethnic groups have their own languages

Religions:

 

Buddhist 89%, Christian 4% (Baptist 3%, Roman Catholic 1%), Muslim 4%, animist 1%, other 2%

Population:

 

54,584,650 (July 2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 24

note: estimates for this country take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected

Health expenditures:

 

2% of GDP (2009)

country comparison to the world: 188

Physicians density:

 

0.457 physicians/1,000 population (2008)

Hospital bed density:

 

0.6 beds/1,000 population (2006)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

 

0.6% (2009 est.)

country comparison to the world: 62

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

 

240,000 (2009 est.)

country comparison to the world: 24

HIV/AIDS - deaths:

 

18,000 (2009 est.)

country comparison to the world: 17

Major infectious diseases:

 

degree of risk: very high

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria

water contact disease: leptospirosis

animal contact disease: rabies

note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2009)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight:

 

29.6% (2003)

country comparison to the world: 19

Education expenditures:

 

NA

Literacy:

 

definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 89.9%

male: 93.9%

female: 86.4% (2006 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):

 

total: 9 years (2007)

 

local long form: Pyidaungzu Myanma Naingngandaw (translated by the US Government as Union of Myanma and by the Burmese as Union of Myanmar)

local short form: Myanma Naingngandaw

former: Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma

note: since 1989 the military authorities in Burma have promoted the name Myanmar as a conventional name for their state; the US Government did not adopt the name, which is a derivative of the Burmese short-form name Myanma Naingngandaw

Government type:

 

nominally civilian parliamentary government took power in March 2011

Capital:

 

name: Rangoon (Yangon)

geographic coordinates: 16 48 N, 96 09 E

time difference: UTC+6.5 (11.5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

note: Nay Pyi Taw is the administrative capital

Administrative divisions:

 

7 regions (taing-myar, singular - taing) and 7 states (pyi ne-myar, singular - pyi ne)

regions: Ayeyarwady, Bago, Magway, Mandalay, Sagaing, Taninthayi, Yangon

states: Chin, Kachin, Kayah, Kayin, Mon, Rakhine (Arakan), Shan

union territory: Nay Pyi Taw

Independence:

 

4 January 1948 (from the UK)

National holiday:

 

Independence Day, 4 January (1948); Union Day, 12 February (1947)

Constitution:

 

approved by referendum 29 May 2008; reformed by a series of acts in 2011

Legal system:

 

mixed legal system of English common law (as introduced in codifications designed for colonial India) and customary law

International law organization participation:

 

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt

Suffrage:

 

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:

 

chief of state: President THEIN SEIN (since 4 February 2011); Vice President SAI MOUK KHAM (since 3 February 2011); Vice President NYAN HTUN (since 15 August 2012)

head of government: President THEIN SEIN (since 4 February 2011)

cabinet: cabinet is appointed by the president and confirmed by the parliament

(For more information visit the World Leaders website )

elections: THEIN SEIN elected president by the parliament from among three vice presidents; the upper house, the lower house, and military members of the parliament each nominate one vice president (president serves a five-year term)

Legislative branch:

 

bicameral, consists of the House of Nationalities [Amyotha Hluttaw] (224 seats, 168 directly elected and 56 appointed by the military; members serve five-year terms) and the House of Representatives [Pythu Hluttaw] (440 seats, 330 directly elected and 110 appointed by the military; members serve five-year terms)

elections: last held on 7 November 2010 (next to be held in December 2015)

election results: House of Nationalities - percent of vote by party - USDP 74.8%, others (NUP, SNDP, RNDP, NDF, AMRDP) 25.2%; seats by party - USDP 129, others 39; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - USDP 79.6%, others (NUP, SNDP, RNDP, NDF, AMRDP) 20.4%; seats by party - USDP 259, others 71

Judicial branch:

 

remnants of the British-era legal system are in place, but there is no guarantee of a fair public trial; the judiciary is not independent of the executive; the 2011 constitution calls for a Supreme Court, a Courts-Martial, and a Constitutional Tribunal of the Union

Political parties and leaders:

 

All Mon Region Democracy Party or AMRDP [NAING NGWE THEIN]; National Democratic Force or NDF [KHIN MAUNG SWE, Dr.THAN NYEIN]; National League for Democracy or NLD [AUNG SAN SUU KYI]; National Unity Party or NUP [TUN YE]; Rakhine Nationalities Development Party or RNDP [Dr. AYE MG]; Shan Nationalities Democratic Party [SAI AIKE PAUNG]; Shan Nationalities League for Democracy or SNLD [HKUN HTUN OO]; Union Solidarity and Development Party or USDP [SHWE MANN, HTAY OO]; numerous smaller parties

Political pressure groups and leaders:

 

Thai border: Ethnic Nationalities Council or ENC; Federation of Trade Unions-Burma or FTUB (exile trade union and labor advocates); National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma or NCGUB (self-proclaimed government in exile) ["Prime Minister" Dr. SEIN WIN] consists of individuals, some legitimately elected to the People's Assembly in 1990 (the group fled to a border area and joined insurgents in December 1990 to form a parallel government in exile); National Council-Union of Burma or NCUB (exile coalition of opposition groups)

Inside Burma: Kachin Independence Organization or KIO; Karen National Union or KNU; Karenni National People's Party or KNPP; United Wa State Army or UWSA; 88 Generation Students (pro-democracy movement); several other Chin, Karen, Mon, and Shan factions

note: freedom of expression has been highly restricted in Burma; the restrictions are being relaxed by the government; political groups, other than parties approved by the government, are limited in number

International organization participation:

 

ADB, ARF, ASEAN, BIMSTEC, CP, EAS, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, ITUC, NAM, OPCW (signatory), SAARC (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

 

Flag description:

 

design consists of three equal horizontal stripes of yellow (top), green, and red; centered on the green band is a large white five-pointed star that partially overlaps onto the adjacent colored stripes; the design revives the triband colors used by Burma from 1943-45, during the Japanese occupation

National symbol(s):

 

chinthe (mythical lion)

Economy - overview:

 

Burma, a resource-rich country, suffers from pervasive government controls, inefficient economic policies, corruption, and rural poverty. Despite Burma's emergence as a natural gas exporter, socio-economic conditions have deteriorated under the mismanagement of the previous regime. Approximately 32% of the population lives in poverty and Burma is the poorest country in Southeast Asia. The business climate is widely perceived as opaque, corrupt, and highly inefficient. Wealth from country's ample natural resources is concentrated in the hands of an elite group of military leaders and business associates. In 2010-11, the transfer of state assets - especially real estate - to military families under the guise of a privatization policy further widened the gap between the economic elite and the public. The economy suffers from serious macroeconomic imbalances - including multiple official exchange rates that overvalue the Burmese kyat, fiscal deficits, lack of commercial credit further distorted by a non-market interest rate regime, unpredictable inflation, unreliable economic data, and an inability to reconcile national accounts. Burma's poor investment climate - including weak rule of law - hampers the inflow of foreign investment; in recent years, foreign investors have shied away from nearly every sector except for natural gas, power generation, timber, and mining. The exploitation of natural resources does not benefit the population at large. The most productive sectors will continue to be in extractive industries - especially oil and gas, mining, and timber - with the latter two causing significant environmental degradation. Other areas, such as manufacturing, tourism, and services, struggle in the face of poor infrastructure, unpredictable trade policies, undeveloped human resources (the result of neglected health and education systems), endemic corruption, and inadequate access to capital for investment. Private banks still operate under tight domestic and international restrictions, limiting the private sector's access to credit. The United States, the European Union, and Canada have imposed financial and economic sanctions on Burma. US sanctions, prohibiting most financial transactions with Burmese entities, impose travel bans on senior Burmese military and civilian leaders and others connected to the ruling regime, and ban imports of Burmese products. These sanctions affect the country's fledgling garment industry, isolate the struggling banking sector, and raise the costs of doing business with Burmese companies, particularly firms tied to Burmese regime leaders. Remittances from overseas Burmese workers - who had provided significant financial support for their families - have driven the Ministry of Finance to license domestic banks to carry out overseas operations. In 2011 the government took initial steps toward reforming and opening up the economy by lowering export taxes, easing restrictions on its financial sector, and reaching out to international organizations for assistance. Although the Burmese government has good economic relations with its neighbors, significant improvements in economic governance, the business climate, and the political situation are needed to promote serious foreign investment.

GDP (purchasing power parity):

 

$82.68 billion (2011 est.)

country comparison to the world: 78

$78.4 billion (2010 est.)

$74.42 billion (2009 est.)

note: data are in 2011 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):

 

$50.62 billion (2011 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:

 

5.5% (2011 est.)

country comparison to the world: 55

5.3% (2010 est.)

5.1% (2009 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):

 

$1,300 (2011 est.)

country comparison to the world: 204

$1,300 (2010 est.)

$1,200 (2009 est.)

note: data are in 2011 US dollars

GDP - composition by sector:

 

agriculture: 39.3%

industry: 18.7%

services: 42% (2011 est.)

Labor force:

 

32.53 million (2011 est.)

country comparison to the world: 19

Labor force - by occupation:

 

agriculture: 70%

industry: 7%

services: 23% (2001 est. est.)

Unemployment rate:

 

5.5% (2011 est.)

country comparison to the world: 55

5.7% (2010 est.)

Population below poverty line:

 

32.7% (2007 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:

 

lowest 10%: 2.8%

highest 10%: 32.4% (1998)

Investment (gross fixed):

 

15.7% of GDP (2011 est.)

country comparison to the world: 132

Budget:

 

revenues: $2.016 billion

expenditures: $4.272 billion (2011 est.)

Taxes and other revenues:

 

4% of GDP (2011 est.)

country comparison to the world: 213

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):

 

-4.5% of GDP (2011 est.)

country comparison to the world: 147

Inflation rate (consumer prices):

 

5% (2011 est.)

country comparison to the world: 125

7.7% (2010 est.)

Central bank discount rate:

 

9.95% (31 December 2010 est.)

country comparison to the world: 19

12% (31 December 2009 est.)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:

 

16.33% (31 December 2011 est.)

country comparison to the world: 33

17% (31 December 2010 est.)

Stock of narrow money:

 

$8.652 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

country comparison to the world: 77

$6.445 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

note: this number reflects the vastly overvalued official exchange rate of 5.38 kyat per dollar in 2007; at the unofficial black market rate of 1,305 kyat per dollar for 2007, the stock of kyats would equal only US$2.465 billion and Burma's velocity of money (the number of times money turns over in the course of a year) would be six, in line with the velocity of money for other countries in the region; in January-February 2011, the unofficial black market rate averaged 890 kyat per dollar

Stock of broad money:

 

$2.178 trillion (31 December 2011 est.)

country comparison to the world: 9

$1.68 trillion (31 December 2010 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:

 

$15.59 million (31 December 2011 est.)

country comparison to the world: 188

$11.66 million (31 December 2010 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:

 

$NA

Agriculture - products:

 

rice, pulses, beans, sesame, groundnuts, sugarcane; fish and fish products; hardwood

Industries:

 

agricultural processing; wood and wood products; copper, tin, tungsten, iron; cement, construction materials; pharmaceuticals; fertilizer; oil and natural gas; garments, jade and gems

Industrial production growth rate:

 

4.3% (2010 est.)

country comparison to the world: 76

Current account balance:

 

$96.1 million (2011 est.)

country comparison to the world: 57

$1.527 billion (2010 est.)

Exports:

 

$8.196 billion (2011 est.)

country comparison to the world: 103

$7.831 billion (2010 est.)

note: official export figures are grossly underestimated due to the value of timber, gems, narcotics, rice, and other products smuggled to Thailand, China, and Bangladesh

Exports - commodities:

 

natural gas, wood products, pulses, beans, fish, rice, clothing, jade and gems

Exports - partners:

 

Thailand 36.7%, China 18.8%, India 14.1%, Japan 6.6% (2011)

Imports:

 

$5.982 billion (2011 est.)

country comparison to the world: 118

$4.376 billion (2010 est.)

note: import figures are grossly underestimated due to the value of consumer goods, diesel fuel, and other products smuggled in from Thailand, China, Malaysia, and India

Imports - commodities:

 

fabric, petroleum products, fertilizer, plastics, machinery, transport equipment; cement, construction materials, crude oil; food products, edible oil

Imports - partners:

 

China 38.8%, Thailand 22.6%, Singapore 9.7%, South Korea 5.4%, Malaysia 4.5%, Japan 4.1% (2011)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:

 

$3.931 billion (2011 est.)

country comparison to the world: 100

$3.763 billion (2010 est.)

Debt - external:

 

$5.804 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

country comparison to the world: 109

$6.352 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Exchange rates:

 

kyats (MMK) per US dollar -

5.39 (2011 est.)

5.58 (2010 est.)

1,055 (2009)

1,205 (2008)

1,296 (2007)

Fiscal year:

 

1 April - 31 March

 

Electricity - production:

 

5.708 billion kWh (2009 est.)

country comparison to the world: 114

Electricity - consumption:

 

3.794 billion kWh (2009 est.)

country comparison to the world: 122

Electricity - exports:

 

0 kWh (2010 est.)

country comparison to the world: 167

Electricity - imports:

 

0 kWh (2010 est.)

country comparison to the world: 164

Electricity - installed generating capacity:

 

1.86 million kW (2009 est.)

country comparison to the world: 103

Electricity - from fossil fuels:

 

67.7% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)

country comparison to the world: 115

Electricity - from nuclear fuels:

 

0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)

country comparison to the world: 53

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:

 

32.3% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)

country comparison to the world: 69

Electricity - from other renewable sources:

 

0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)

country comparison to the world: 112

Crude oil - production:

 

20,200 bbl/day (2011 est.)

country comparison to the world: 70

Crude oil - exports:

 

880 bbl/day (2009 est.)

country comparison to the world: 64

Crude oil - imports:

 

0 bbl/day (2009 est.)

country comparison to the world: 161

Crude oil - proved reserves:

 

50 million bbl (1 January 2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 79

Refined petroleum products - production:

 

16,700 bbl/day (2008 est.)

country comparison to the world: 99

Refined petroleum products - consumption:

 

40,620 bbl/day (2011 est.)

country comparison to the world: 108

Refined petroleum products - exports:

 

0 bbl/day (2008 est.)

country comparison to the world: 157

Refined petroleum products - imports:

 

12,730 bbl/day (2008 est.)

country comparison to the world: 127

Natural gas - production:

 

12.1 billion cu m (2010 est.)

country comparison to the world: 39

Natural gas - consumption:

 

3.29 billion cu m (2010 est.)

country comparison to the world: 69

Natural gas - exports:

 

8.81 billion cu m (2010 est.)

country comparison to the world: 24

Natural gas - imports:

 

0 cu m (2010 est.)

country comparison to the world: 164

Natural gas - proved reserves:

 

283.2 billion cu m (1 January 2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 41

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:

 

12.8 million Mt (2010 est.)

country comparison to the world: 95

 

Transportation

Airports:

 

74 (2012)

country comparison to the world: 73

Airports - with paved runways:

 

total: 36

over 3,047 m: 12

2,438 to 3,047 m: 11

1,524 to 2,437 m: 12

under 914 m: 1 (2012)

Airports - with unpaved runways:

 

total: 38

over 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 4

914 to 1,523 m: 10

under 914 m: 23 (2012)

Heliports:

 

9 (2012)

Pipelines:

 

gas 3,046 km; oil 551 km (2010)

Railways:

 

total: 5,031 km

country comparison to the world: 36

narrow gauge: 5,031 km 1.000-m gauge (2008)

Roadways:

 

total: 34,377 km (includes 358 km of expressways) (2010)

country comparison to the world: 94

Waterways:

 

12,800 km (2011)

country comparison to the world: 10

Merchant marine:

 

total: 29

country comparison to the world: 86

by type: cargo 22, passenger 2, passenger/cargo 3, specialized tanker 1, vehicle carrier 1

foreign-owned: 2 (Germany 1, Japan 1)

registered in other countries: 3 (Panama 3) (2010)

Ports and terminals:

 

Moulmein, Rangoon, Sittwe

 

Broadcast media:

The national newspapers have three kinds: Burmese version of "Light of Myanmar", "New Light of Myanmar" in English and "Mirror" which was resumed publication in September 1992. The local newspaper Yangon published "Capital News" Mandalay "Mandalay" and "Faraday that list " newspaper. In addition, the country there are about 140 kinds of magazines and journals, famous : " vision "and" wealth " and so on.

government controls all domestic broadcast media; 2 state-controlled TV stations with 1 of the stations controlled by the armed forces; 2 pay-TV stations are joint state-private ventures; access to satellite TV is limited; 1 state-controlled domestic radio station and 6 FM stations that are joint state-private ventures; transmissions of several international broadcasters are available in parts of Burma; the Voice of America (VOA), Radio Free Asia (RFA), BBC Burmese service, and the Democratic Voice of Burma (DVB) use shortwave to send broadcasts into Burma; VOA, RFA, and DVB produce daily TV news programs that are transmitted by satellite to audiences in Burma (2009)

 

Military branches:

 

Myanmar Armed Forces (Tatmadaw): Army (Tatmadaw Kyi), Navy (Tatmadaw Yay), Air Force (Tatmadaw Lay) (2011)

Military service age and obligation:

 

18-35 years of age (men) and 18-27 years of age (women) for compulsory military service; service obligation 2 years; male (ages 18-45) and female (ages 18-35) professionals (including doctors, engineers, mechanics) serve up to 3 years; service terms may be extended to 5 years in an officially declared emergency; forced conscription of children, although officially prohibited, reportedly continues; on 27 June 2012, the regime signed a Joint Action Plan on prevention of child recruitment (2012)

Manpower available for military service:

 

males age 16-49: 14,747,845

females age 16-49: 14,710,871 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:

 

males age 16-49: 10,451,515

females age 16-49: 11,181,537 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:

 

male: 522,478

female: 506,388 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:

 

2.1% of GDP (2005 est.)

country comparison to the world: 67

 


Keyword: Myanmar Profile

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