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Thailand Profile

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Tips:Country ProfileBilateral relationsThe year 2010 marked the 35th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations
 Country Profile

Bilateral relations

The year 2010 marked the 35th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between the People's Republic of China and the Kingdom of Thailand. Strategic cooperation between the two countries made steady progress.

 

The two countries had frequent high-level meetings. In January, President of the National Assembly and Speaker of the House of Representatives Mr. Chai Chidchob visited China. In March, NPC Vice Chairman Yan Junqi attended the 122nd IPU Assembly in Thailand. In April, Her Royal Highness Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn visited China. In June, Deputy Prime Minister Major General Sanan Kajornprasart visited the Shanghai World Expo and Guangdong Province. In July, Her Royal Highness Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn visited the Shanghai World Expo. Deputy Prime Minister Suthep Thaugsuban visited China and toured the Shanghai World Expo. Foreign Minister Kasit Piromya attended the celebrations marking the 35th anniversary of the establishment of China-Thailand diplomatic relations in China. In August, Foreign Minister Kasit Piromya toured the Shanghai World Expo and visited Zhejiang Province. In September, Prime Minister Abhisit Vejjajiva attended the National Pavilion Day of Thailand at the Shanghai World Expo. In November, NPC Chairman Wu Bangguo paid an official goodwill visit to Thailand, which enhanced political mutual trust and deepened mutually beneficial practical cooperation between the two countries. The two sides signed the exchange of letters on China providing Thailand with RMB10 million of humanitarian assistance and several economic cooperation agreements. In November, Prime Minister Abhisit Vejjajiva attended the opening ceremony of the Asian Games in Guangzhou, China. Premier Wen met with him. The two sides reached broad consensus on promoting comprehensive growth of China-Thailand relations. In December, Deputy Prime Minister Sanan Kajornprasart attended the closing ceremony of the Paralympic Games in Guangzhou, China. Foreign Minister Kasit Piromya attended the foundation-laying ceremony of the new Thai consulate-general in Guangzhou.

 

Cooperation in economic, cultural, educational and military fields continued to grow. In 2010, China-Thailand trade reached US$52.95 billion, an increase of 38.6% over the previous year. In February, cultural activities celebrating the Chinese New Year was held in Bangkok. In August, the two Ministries of Education renewed the Agreement on Mutual Recognition of Academic Degrees and Credentials of Higher Education. In October, the "Strike 2010" Sino-Thai special force anti-terror joint training was held. In November, the "Blue Strike" Sino-Thai marine joint training was held. By the end of 2010, 12 Confucius Colleges and 11 Confucius Classrooms were established in Thailand.

 

Introduction :

Background:

 

A unified Thai kingdom was established in the mid-14th century. Known as Siam until 1939, Thailand is the only Southeast Asian country never to have been taken over by a European power. A bloodless revolution in 1932 led to a constitutional monarchy. In alliance with Japan during World War II, Thailand became a US treaty ally in 1954 after sending troops to Korea and later fighting alongside the United States in Vietnam. Thailand since 2005 has experienced several rounds of political turmoil including a military coup in 2006 that ousted then Prime Minister THAKSIN Chinnawat, followed by large-scale street protests by competing political factions in 2008, 2009, and 2010. Demonstrations in 2010 culminated with clashes between security forces and pro-THAKSIN protesters, elements of which were armed, and resulted in at least 92 deaths and an estimated $1.5 billion in arson-related property losses. THAKSIN's youngest sister, YINGLAK Chinnawat, in 2011 led the Puea Thai Party to an electoral win and assumed control of the government. YINGLAK's leadership was almost immediately challenged by historic flooding in late 2011 that had large swathes of the country underwater and threatened to inundate Bangkok itself. Throughout 2012 the Puea Thai-led government struggled with the opposition Democrat Party to fulfill some its main election promises, including constitutional reform and political reconciliation.

Geography:

Location:

 

Southeastern Asia, bordering the Andaman Sea and the Gulf of Thailand, southeast of Burma

Geographic coordinates:

 

15 00 N, 100 00 E

Map references:

 

Southeast Asia

Area:

 

total: 513,120 sq km

country comparison to the world: 51

land: 510,890 sq km

water: 2,230 sq km

Area - comparative:

 

slightly more than twice the size of Wyoming

Land boundaries:

 

total: 4,863 km

border countries: Burma 1,800 km, Cambodia 803 km, Laos 1,754 km, Malaysia 506 km

Coastline:

 

3,219 km

Maritime claims:

 

territorial sea: 12 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation

Climate:

 

tropical; rainy, warm, cloudy southwest monsoon (mid-May to September); dry, cool northeast monsoon (November to mid-March); southern isthmus always hot and humid

Terrain:

 

central plain; Khorat Plateau in the east; mountains elsewhere

Elevation extremes:

 

lowest point: Gulf of Thailand 0 m

highest point: Doi Inthanon 2,576 m

Natural resources:

 

tin, rubber, natural gas, tungsten, tantalum, timber, lead, fish, gypsum, lignite, fluorite, arable land

Land use:

 

arable land: 27.54%

permanent crops: 6.93%

other: 65.53% (2005)

Irrigated land:

 

64,150 sq km (2003)

Total renewable water resources:

 

409.9 cu km (1999)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):

 

total: 82.75 cu km/yr (2%/2%/95%)

per capita: 1,288 cu m/yr (2000)

Natural hazards:

 

land subsidence in Bangkok area resulting from the depletion of the water table; droughts

Environment - current issues:

 

air pollution from vehicle emissions; water pollution from organic and factory wastes; deforestation; soil erosion; wildlife populations threatened by illegal hunting

Environment - international agreements:

 

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography - note:

 

controls only land route from Asia to Malaysia and Singapore

 

People and Society :

Nationality:

 

noun: Thai (singular and plural)

adjective: Thai

Ethnic groups:

 

Thai 75%, Chinese 14%, other 11%

Languages:

 

Thai, English (secondary language of the elite), ethnic and regional dialects

Religions:

 

Buddhist (official) 94.6%, Muslim 4.6%, Christian 0.7%, other 0.1% (2000 census)

Population:

 

67,091,089 (July 2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 20

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected

Urbanization:

 

urban population: 34% of total population (2010)

rate of urbanization: 1.8% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major cities - population:

 

BANGKOK (capital) 6.902 million (2009)

Health expenditures:

 

4.3% of GDP (2009)

country comparison to the world: 153

Physicians density:

 

0.298 physicians/1,000 population (2004)

Hospital bed density:

 

2.2 beds/1,000 population (2002)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

 

1.3% (2009 est.)

country comparison to the world: 39

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

 

530,000 (2009 est.)

country comparison to the world: 15

HIV/AIDS - deaths:

 

28,000 (2009 est.)

country comparison to the world: 13

Major infectious diseases:

 

degree of risk: high

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea

vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, Japanese encephalitis, and malaria

animal contact disease: rabies

water contact disease: leptospirosis

note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2009)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate:

 

7.8% (2003)

country comparison to the world: 60

Children under the age of 5 years underweight:

 

7% (2006)

country comparison to the world: 73

Education expenditures:

 

4.1% of GDP (2009)

country comparison to the world: 102

Literacy:

 

definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 92.6%

male: 94.9%

female: 90.5% (2000 census)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):

 

total: 12 years

male: 12 years

female: 13 years (2010)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:

 

total: 4.3%

country comparison to the world: 125

male: 3.7%

female: 5.1% (2009)

 

Government :

Country name:

 

conventional long form: Kingdom of Thailand

conventional short form: Thailand

local long form: Ratcha Anachak Thai

local short form: Prathet Thai

former: Siam

Government type:

 

constitutional monarchy

Capital:

 

name: Bangkok

geographic coordinates: 13 45 N, 100 31 E

time difference: UTC+7 (12 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:

 

77 provinces (changwat, singular and plural); Amnat Charoen, Ang Thong, Bueng Kan, Buriram, Chachoengsao, Chai Nat, Chaiyaphum, Chanthaburi, Chiang Mai, Chiang Rai, Chon Buri, Chumphon, Kalasin, Kamphaeng Phet, Kanchanaburi, Khon Kaen, Krabi, Krung Thep Mahanakhon (Bangkok), Lampang, Lamphun, Loei, Lop Buri, Mae Hong Son, Maha Sarakham, Mukdahan, Nakhon Nayok, Nakhon Pathom, Nakhon Phanom, Nakhon Ratchasima, Nakhon Sawan, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Nan, Narathiwat, Nong Bua Lamphu, Nong Khai, Nonthaburi, Pathum Thani, Pattani, Phangnga, Phatthalung, Phayao, Phetchabun, Phetchaburi, Phichit, Phitsanulok, Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya, Phrae, Phuket, Prachin Buri, Prachuap Khiri Khan, Ranong, Ratchaburi, Rayong, Roi Et, Sa Kaeo, Sakon Nakhon, Samut Prakan, Samut Sakhon, Samut Songkhram, Sara Buri, Satun, Sing Buri, Sisaket, Songkhla, Sukhothai, Suphan Buri, Surat Thani, Surin, Tak, Trang, Trat, Ubon Ratchathani, Udon Thani, Uthai Thani, Uttaradit, Yala, Yasothon

Independence:

 

1238 (traditional founding date; never colonized)

National holiday:

 

Birthday of King PHUMIPHON (BHUMIBOL), 5 December (1927)

Constitution:

 

24 August 2007

Legal system:

 

civil law system with common law influences

International law organization participation:

 

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt

Suffrage:

 

18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:

 

chief of state: King PHUMIPHON Adunyadet, also spelled BHUMIBOL Adulyadej (since 9 June 1946)

head of government: Prime Minister YINGLAK Chinnawat, also spelled YINGLUCK Shinawatra (since 8 August 2011); Deputy Prime Minister CHARUPHONG Rueangsusan also spelled JARUPONG Ruangsuwan (since 28 October 2012); Deputy Prime Minister CHALOEM Yubamrung also spelled CHALERM Yubamrung (since 28 October 2012; Deputy Prime Minister CHUMPHON Sinlapa-acha also spelled CHUMPOL Silpa-archa (since 28 October 2012); Deputy Prime Minister KITTIRAT Na Ranong (since 28 October 2012); Deputy Prime Minister PHONGTHEP Therkanchana also spelled PHONGTHEP Thepkanchana (since 28 October 2012); Deputy Prime Minister PLODPRASOP Suraswadi (since 28 October 2012);Deputy Prime Minister SURAPHONG Towijakchaikun also spelled SURAPONG Tovichakchaikul (since 28 October 2012)

cabinet: Council of Ministers

(For more information visit the World Leaders website )

note: there is also a Privy Council advising the king

elections: the monarchy is hereditary; according to 2007 constitution, the prime minister is elected from among members of House of Representatives; following national elections for House of Representatives, the leader of the party positioned to organize a majority coalition usually becomes prime minister by appointment by the king; the prime minister is limited to two four-year terms

Legislative branch:

 

bicameral National Assembly or Rathasapha consisted of the Senate or Wuthisapha (150 seats; 77 members elected by popular vote representing 77 provinces, 73 appointed by judges and independent government bodies; members serve six-year terms) and the House of Representatives or Sapha Phuthaen Ratsadon (500 seats; 375 members elected from 375 single-seat constituencies and 125 elected on proportional party-list basis; members serve four-year terms)

elections: Senate - last held on 2 March 2008 (next to be held in March 2014); House of Representatives - last election held on 3 July 2011 (next to be held by July 2015)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PTP 265, DP 159, PJT 34, CTP 19, others 15

note: 74 senators were appointed on 19 February 2008 by a seven-member committee headed by the chief of the Constitutional Court; 76 senators were elected on 2 March 2008; elections to the Senate are non-partisan; registered political party members are disqualified from being senators

Judicial branch:

 

Constitutional Court, Supreme Court of Justice, and Supreme Administrative Court; all judges are appointed by the king; the king's appointments to the Constitutional Court are made upon the advice of the Senate; the nine Constitutional Court judges are drawn from the Supreme Court of Justice and Supreme Administrative Court as well as from among substantive experts in law and social sciences outside the judiciary

Political parties and leaders:

 

Chat Pattana Party or CPN (Nation Development Party [WANNARAT Channukun]; Chat Thai Phattana Party or CTP (Thai Nation Development Party) [CHUMPON Silpa-archa]; Phalang Chon Party (People [Chonburi] Power Party) [CHAO Manivong]; Phumjai (Bhumjai) Thai Party or PJT (Thai Pride) [Boonjong WONGTRAIRAT (acting)]; Prachathipat Party or DP (Democrat Party) [ABHISIT Wechachiwa, also spelled ABHISIT Vejjajiva]; Puea Thai Party (For Thais Party) or PTP [CHARUPHONG Rueangsusan also spelled JARUPONG Ruangsuwan]; Rak Prathet Thai Party (Love Thailand Party) [CHUWIT Kamonwisit]

Political pressure groups and leaders:

 

Multicolor Group; People's Alliance for Democracy or PAD; United Front for Democracy Against Dictatorship or UDD

International organization participation:

 

ADB, APEC, ARF, ASEAN, BIMSTEC, BIS, CD, CICA, CP, EAS, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE (partner), PCA, PIF (partner), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMOGIP, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Flag description:

 

five horizontal bands of red (top), white, blue (double width), white, and red; the red color symbolizes the nation and the blood of life; white represents religion and the purity of Buddhism; blue stands for the monarchy

note: similar to the flag of Costa Rica but with the blue and red colors reversed

National symbol(s):

 

garuda (mythical half-man, half-bird figure); elephant

 

Economy :

Economy - overview:

 

With a well-developed infrastructure, a free-enterprise economy, generally pro-investment policies, and strong export industries, Thailand enjoyed solid growth from 2000 to 2007 - averaging more than 4% per year - as it recovered from the Asian financial crisis of 1997-98. Thai exports - mostly machinery and electronic components, agricultural commodities, and jewelry - continue to drive the economy, accounting for more than half of GDP. The global financial crisis of 2008-09 severely cut Thailand's exports, with most sectors experiencing double-digit drops. In 2009, the economy contracted 2.3%. In 2010, Thailand's economy expanded 7.8%, its fastest pace since 1995, as exports rebounded from their depressed 2009 level. Steady economic growth at just below 4% during the first three quarters of 2011 was interrupted by historic flooding in October and November in the industrial areas north of Bangkok, crippling the manufacturing sector and leading to a revised growth rate of only 0.1% for the year. The industrial sector is poised to recover from the second quarter of 2012 onward, however, and the government anticipates the economy will probably grow between 5.5 and 6.5% for 2012, while private sector forecasts range between 3.8% and 5.7%.

GDP (purchasing power parity):

 

$602.2 billion (2011 est.)

country comparison to the world: 25

$601.9 billion (2010 est.)

$558.5 billion (2009 est.)

note: data are in 2011 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):

 

$340.1 billion (2011 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:

 

0.1% (2011 est.)

country comparison to the world: 197

7.8% (2010 est.)

-2.3% (2009 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):

 

$9,400 (2011 est.)

country comparison to the world: 114

$9,400 (2010 est.)

$8,800 (2009 est.)

note: data are in 2011 US dollars

GDP - composition by sector:

 

agriculture: 13.3%

industry: 43%

services: 43.7% (2011 est.)

Labor force:

 

38.9 million (2011 est.)

country comparison to the world: 16

Labor force - by occupation:

 

agriculture: 40.7%

industry: 13.2%

services: 46.1% (2011 est.)

Unemployment rate:

 

0.7% (2011 est.)

country comparison to the world: 3

1% (2010 est.)

Population below poverty line:

 

8.1% (2009 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:

 

lowest 10%: 2.8%

highest 10%: 31.5% (2009 est.)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:

 

53.6 (2009)

country comparison to the world: 12

42 (2002)

Investment (gross fixed):

 

26.3% of GDP (2011 est.)

country comparison to the world: 36

Budget:

 

revenues: $66.21 billion

expenditures: $71.35 billion (2011 est.)

Taxes and other revenues:

 

19.5% of GDP (2011 est.)

country comparison to the world: 169

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):

 

-1.5% of GDP (2011 est.)

country comparison to the world: 69

Public debt:

 

44.9% of GDP (2011 est.)

country comparison to the world: 71

43.1% of GDP (2010 est.)

note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are sold at public auctions

Inflation rate (consumer prices):

 

3.8% (2011 est.)

country comparison to the world: 96

3.3% (2010 est.)

Central bank discount rate:

 

3.25% (31 December 2011 est.)

country comparison to the world: 111

2% (31 December 2010 est.)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:

 

6.91% (31 December 2011 est.)

country comparison to the world: 143

5.94% (31 December 2010 est.)

Stock of narrow money:

 

$44.63 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

country comparison to the world: 47

$43.2 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Stock of broad money:

 

$428.1 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

country comparison to the world: 24

$390.7 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:

 

$402.5 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

country comparison to the world: 29

$365.5 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:

 

$268.5 billion (31 December 2011)

country comparison to the world: 29

$277.7 billion (31 December 2010)

$138.2 billion (31 December 2009)

Agriculture - products:

 

rice, cassava (manioc), rubber, corn, sugarcane, coconuts, soybeans

Industries:

 

tourism, textiles and garments, agricultural processing, beverages, tobacco, cement, light manufacturing such as jewelry and electric appliances, computers and parts, integrated circuits, furniture, plastics, automobiles and automotive parts; world's second-largest tungsten producer and third-largest tin producer

Industrial production growth rate:

 

-9.3% (2011 est.)

country comparison to the world: 165

Current account balance:

 

$5.322 billion (2011 est.)

country comparison to the world: 31

$13.1 billion (2010 est.)

Exports:

 

$219.1 billion (2011 est.)

country comparison to the world: 26

$193.6 billion (2010 est.)

Exports - commodities:

 

textiles and footwear, fishery products, rice, rubber, jewelry, automobiles, computers and electrical appliances

Exports - partners:

 

China 12%, Japan 10.5%, US 9.6%, Hong Kong 7.2%, Malaysia 5.4%, Singapore 5%, Indonesia 4.4% (2011)

Imports:

 

$202.1 billion (2011 est.)

country comparison to the world: 25

$161.9 billion (2010 est.)

Imports - commodities:

 

capital goods, intermediate goods and raw materials, consumer goods, fuels

Imports - partners:

 

Japan 18.4%, China 13.4%, UAE 6.3%, US 5.9%, Malaysia 5.4%, South Korea 4% (2009 est.)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:

 

$175.1 billion (2011 est.)

country comparison to the world: 15

$172.1 billion (2010 est.)

Debt - external:

 

$82.54 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

country comparison to the world: 50

$71.26 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:

 

$146.7 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

country comparison to the world: 27

$137.2 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:

 

$34.79 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

country comparison to the world: 38

$24.17 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Exchange rates:

 

baht per US dollar -

30.492 (2011 est.)

31.686 (2010 est.)

34.286 (2009)

33.37 (2008)

34.52 (2007)

Fiscal year:

 

1 October - 30 September

 

Energy :

Electricity - production:

 

147.9 billion kWh (2010 est.)

country comparison to the world: 25

Electricity - consumption:

 

131.9 billion kWh (2009 est.)

country comparison to the world: 24

Electricity - exports:

 

1.35 billion kWh (2010 est.)

country comparison to the world: 53

Electricity - imports:

 

7.812 billion kWh (2010 est.)

country comparison to the world: 30

Electricity - installed generating capacity:

 

47.38 million kW (2009 est.)

country comparison to the world: 19

Electricity - from fossil fuels:

 

90.9% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)

country comparison to the world: 74

Electricity - from nuclear fuels:

 

0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)

country comparison to the world: 183

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:

 

7.4% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)

country comparison to the world: 121

Electricity - from other renewable sources:

 

1.7% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)

country comparison to the world: 62

Crude oil - production:

 

378,200 bbl/day (2011 est.)

country comparison to the world: 33

Crude oil - exports:

 

39,820 bbl/day (2009 est.)

country comparison to the world: 48

Crude oil - imports:

 

807,400 bbl/day (2009 est.)

country comparison to the world: 15

Crude oil - proved reserves:

 

442 million bbl (1 January 2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 52

Refined petroleum products - production:

 

837,400 bbl/day (2008 est.)

country comparison to the world: 25

Refined petroleum products - consumption:

 

985,100 bbl/day (2011 est.)

country comparison to the world: 24

Refined petroleum products - exports:

 

191,600 bbl/day (2008 est.)

country comparison to the world: 34

Refined petroleum products - imports:

 

7,564 bbl/day (2008 est.)

country comparison to the world: 139

Natural gas - production:

 

36.27 billion cu m (2010 est.)

country comparison to the world: 26

Natural gas - consumption:

 

45.08 billion cu m (2010 est.)

country comparison to the world: 21

Natural gas - exports:

 

0 cu m (2010 est.)

country comparison to the world: 60

Natural gas - imports:

 

8.81 billion cu m (2010 est.)

country comparison to the world: 27

Natural gas - proved reserves:

 

299.8 billion cu m (1 January 2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 40

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:

 

278.5 million Mt (2010 est.)

country comparison to the world: 23

 

Communications :

Telephones - main lines in use:

 

6.661 million (2011)

country comparison to the world: 28

Telephones - mobile cellular:

 

78.668 million (2011)

country comparison to the world: 18

Telephone system:

 

general assessment: high quality system, especially in urban areas like Bangkok

domestic: fixed line system provided by both a government owned and commercial provider; wireless service expanding rapidly

international: country code - 66; connected to major submarine cable systems providing links throughout Asia, Australia, Middle East, Europe, and US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean, 1 Pacific Ocean)

Broadcast media:

Thai-language media is the mainstream media, English, Chinese media ranks auxiliary status. Major Thai newspaper "manager reported," Thai Lak "," Opinion newspaper", the "Daily News". The main Chinese-language newspaper the" New Chinese Daily News "," China Daily "," Star Siem Daily "," Asian Daily "," Beijing Central Plains "and" World Journal ". The main English-language newspaper: "Bangkok Post", "Nation"

 

6 terrestrial TV stations in Bangkok broadcast nationally via relay stations - 2 of the networks are owned by the military, the other 4 are government-owned or controlled, leased to private enterprise, and all are required to broadcast government-produced news programs twice a day; multi-channel satellite and cable TV subscription services are available; radio frequencies have been allotted for more than 500 government and commercial radio stations; many small community radio stations operate with low-power transmitters (2008)

Internet country code:

 

.th

Internet hosts:

 

3.399 million (2012)

country comparison to the world: 31

Internet users:

 

17.483 million (2009)

country comparison to the world: 23

 

Transportation :

Airports:

 

103 (2012)

country comparison to the world: 55

Airports - with paved runways:

 

total: 63

over 3,047 m: 8

2,438 to 3,047 m: 12

1,524 to 2,437 m: 23

914 to 1,523 m: 15

under 914 m: 5 (2012)

Airports - with unpaved runways:

 

total: 40

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 12

under 914 m: 27 (2012)

Heliports:

 

6 (2012)

Pipelines:

 

gas 1,889 km; liquid petroleum gas 85 km; refined products 1,099 km (2010)

Railways:

 

total: 4,071 km

country comparison to the world: 42

standard gauge: 29 km 1.435-m gauge (29 km electrified)

narrow gauge: 4,042 km 1.000-m gauge (2008)

Roadways:

 

total: 180,053 km (includes 450 km of expressways) (2006)

country comparison to the world: 26

Waterways:

 

4,000 km (3,701 km navigable by boats with drafts up to 0.9 m) (2011)

country comparison to the world: 27

Merchant marine:

 

total: 363

country comparison to the world: 28

by type: bulk carrier 31, cargo 99, chemical tanker 28, container 18, liquefied gas 36, passenger 1, passenger/cargo 10, petroleum tanker 114, refrigerated cargo 24, roll on/roll off 1, vehicle carrier 1

foreign-owned: 13 (China 1, Hong Kong 1, Malaysia 3, Singapore 1, Taiwan 1, UK 6)

registered in other countries: 46 (Bahamas 4, Belize 1, Honduras 2, Panama 6, Singapore 33) (2010)

Ports and terminals:

 

Bangkok, Laem Chabang, Map Ta Phut, Prachuap Port, Si Racha

 

Military :

Military branches:

 

Royal Thai Army (Kongthap Bok Thai, RTA), Royal Thai Navy (Kongthap Ruea Thai, RTN, includes Royal Thai Marine Corps), Royal Thai Air Force (Kongthap Agard Thai, RTAF) (2010)

Military service age and obligation:

 

21 years of age for compulsory military service; 18 years of age for voluntary military service; males register at 18 years of age; 2-year conscript service obligation (2009)

Military expenditures:

 

1.8% of GDP (2005 est.)

country comparison to the world: 82

 


Keyword: Thailand Profile

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