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Indonesia Profile

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Tips:1 Country ProfileI. Political RelationsChina and Indonesia established diplomatic relations on 13 April 1950, which was
 1 Country Profile

 

I. Political Relations

China and Indonesia established diplomatic relations on 13 April 1950, which was suspended on 30 October 1967 due to the occurrence of the "November 30 event" of 1965.

The bilateral relations began to ease since 1980s. Foreign Minister Qian Qichen of China met respectively with President Soharto and State Minister Moerdiono of Indonesia in 1989 to discuss the resumption of diplomatic relations of the two countries. In December 1989, the two sides held talks on the technical issues regarding the normalization of bilateral relations and signed the Minutes. Foreign Minister Ali Alatas of Indonesia visited China on invitation in July 1990 and the two sides issued the Agreement on the Settlement of Indonesia's Debt Obligation to China and the Communique on the Resumption of Diplomatic Relations between the two countries. The two countries issued the "Communiqué on the Restoration of Diplomatic Relations between the Two Countries".

Premier Li Peng visited Indonesia on invitation in August 6, 1990. In his talks with President Soharto, the two sides expressed their willingness to improve and develop the friendly relations and cooperation between the two countries in the spirit of looking forward and on the basis of the Five Principles of Peaceful Co-Existence and the Ten Principles of Bandung Conference. On 8 August, Foreign Ministers of China and Indonesia on behalf of their respective governments, signed the Memorandum of Understanding on the Resumption of Diplomatic Relations. The two sides declared the formal resumption of the diplomatic relations between China and Indonesia on that day.

The bilateral relations developed steadily since the resumption of diplomatic relations of the two countries. The leaders of the two sides have maintained exchange of visits and contacts. As a result, mutual understanding and trust had been increasing, laying the foundation for the healthy and steady development of bilateral relations. The two Ministries of Foreign Affairs set up a consultative mechanism and have held 5 rounds of consultations by 1999. The recent years have witnessed the constant deepening of economic and trade cooperation and increase of the trade volume year by year. Exchanges and cooperation in other fields are under way. China and Indonesia have maintained good coordination and cooperation in international and regional affairs. Some of the issues between the two countries left over by history are starting to be solved.

Since the resumption of diplomatic ties between the two countries, President Yang Shangkun
in 1991, Chairman of NPC Standing Committee Qiao Shi in 1993 and Vice Premier Zhu Rongji in 1996, Vice President Hu Jintao (in 2000) of China visited Indonesia. President Sohartoin 1990, Speaker of Parliament Suhudin 1991, Vice President Sudarmonoin 1992 and Chairman of the Supreme Advisory Council Sudomoin 1997 visited China. President Jiang Zemin of China paid a state visit to Indonesia in November 1994 after he attended the second APEC Leaders' Informal Meeting. In December 1999, President K.H. Abdurrahman Wahid of Indonesia paid a state visit to China, during which the two countries issued a joint press communiqué. In July 2000, Vice President Hu Jintao visited Indonesia at the invitation of Vice President Megawati.

In November 2001, Premier Zhu Rongji paid a visit to Indonesia. In March 2002, Indonesian President Megawati Sukarnoputri paid a state visit to China. In April, President Abdurrahman Wahid of the Indonesian People's Consultative Assembly visited China. In September, Chairman Li Peng of the NPC paid an official friendly visit to Indonesia.

Starting from 1991, the foreign ministries of the two countries set up a consultation mechanism and up to now it has held six times of consultation. In March 2002, the two countries exchanged notes in regard with the setup of Indonesian consulates general in Guangzhou and Shanghai. Indonesia has its Consulate-General in Hong Kong.

II. Economic and Trade Relations and Technological Cooperation

The foreign trade and economic cooperation of the two countries witnessed a smooth development. After of restoration of the diplomatic relations the two countries have signed the "Air Transport Agreement", "Investment Protection Agreement", "Sea Transportation Agreement", "Agreement on Avoiding Dual Taxation" and also signed the memorandum for understanding of cooperation in the fields of mining, forestry, tourism, fishery, transportation, agriculture and finance, etc. In 1990, the two countries set up a joint committee for economic, trade and technological cooperation and so far it has held five meetings for it. In March 2002, an energy forum was put up and held the first meeting in September of the year.

Bilateral trade volume has risen very quickly since the two countries resumed diplomatic ties, from 1.18 billion US$ in 1990 to 7.464 billion in 2000. In 2001, the bilateral trade volume slided down a little bit, telling USD 6.725 billion due to the global economic slowdown and the first half of 2002 accounted for USD 3.6 billion, an increase of 5.7 percent compared with the corresponding period of the previous year. China is the 5th trade partner of Indonesia while Indonesia the 17th of China. By the end of 2001, agriculture, energy, exploration of resources and infrastructure construction had become the major parts of their economic and trade cooperation.

Dual directional investment has been gradually developed. Up to the 2001, the approved investment by Indonesia in China came to 841 items with an agreed investment valued at 1.7 billion in US dollars. China set up 53 non-trade joint ventures and jointly-operated enterprises in Indonesia with a total investment of 161 million in US dollars. By the end of 2001, the two sides reached a consensus on Bank of China reopening its branch in Jakarta.

III. Exchanges and Cooperation in Cultural, Scientific and Technological and Military Fields

The exchanges and cooperation in such various fields as culture, science and technology, education, health, military affairs, religion, tourism, communication, agriculture and forestry between China and Indonesia have been further developed after the resumption of their diplomatic ties. The two sides signed a series of documents for strengthening the friendly exchanges and cooperation in the above-mentioned fields. The Agreement Relating to the Scheduled Air Transport was signed in January 1991. Air China, China South Airlines and Garuda Indonesian airlines opened direct flights between the two countries. The Ministry of Radio, Film and Television of China and the Ministry of Information of Indonesia signed a MOU on information cooperation in January 1992. Xinhua News Agency of China and Antara Press of Indonesia set up their branch offices respectively in Jakarta and Beijing according to the relevant articles of the MOU. The two sides started the programme of student exchange in 1994. The Indonesia-China Association of Economic, Social and Cultural Cooperation was founded in July 1992, and the China-Indonesia Association of Economic and Cultural Cooperation was founded in August 1993. The two associations signed a MOU on cooperation. In addition, the two sides signed a MOU on promotion of cooperation in tourism, and MOUs on health and sports cooperation. In July 2000, the two countries signed an agreement on mutually granting judicial assistance to each other. In 1997, the two countries set up a joint committee for scientific and technological cooperation and so far it had two meetings held. An "Agreement on Conducting Chinese Examination in Indonesia" was signed in May 2000. In September 2000, China approved Indonesia to be a destination for the outbound tour of Chinese citizens. In November 2001, the "Agreement for Cultural Cooperation" was signed once again.

Cooperation between local governments came to be vigorous. Beijing built up ties of friendship cities with Jakarta, the Indonesian capital city and letters of intent have been reached for establishing friendship relation at provincial level between East Java and Shanghai, Guangdong Province and North Sumatra, Fujian Province with Central Java and Hunan Province with West Nusatenggara.

IV. Other Issues

There are about 7 million Indonesians of Chinese origin and a certain number of Chinese nationals residing in Indonesia. The issue of Chinese Indonesians and overseas Chinese in Indonesia remains sensitive in bilateral relations due to various reasons. The Chinese government made representations and expressed its concern over the violence against Chinese in the turmoil taking place in Indonesia in May 1998 and requested the Indonesian government to make thorough investigation on the incidents and take effective measures to protect the legitimate rights and interests of ethnic Chinese in Indonesia. The Chinese in Indonesia: in recent years, the Indonesian government has by and by adopted some measures by abrogating some policies for restricting and discriminating the Chinese there and they are now living in a somewhat improved condition.

V. Other Major Bilateral Agreements and Documents

In May 2000, Foreign Minister Tang Jiaxuan and visiting Indonesian Foreign Minister Alwi Shihab signed a joint statement on the direction of the development of bilateral relations in the future and a memorandum of understanding about putting in place a joint committee on bilateral cooperation.

 

Country Profile

 

[Name of country] the Republic of Indonesia (THE REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA)

 

[Area] land area of  ​​1,904,443 square kilometers, the marine area of ​​3,166,163 square kilometers (not including the exclusive economic zone).

 

(Source: 2005 Economist Intelligence Unit country report)

 

[Population] 237 million (2010), the world's fourth most populous country. There are more than 100 ethnic groups, which the Javanese is about 45%,the Sundanese is about 14% ,the Madura is of 7.5%, Malay is about 7.5%, other are 26%. There are more than 200 kinds of national language,and the official language is Indonesian. Approximately 87% of the population is Muslim, which is the most populous Muslim country in the world. 6.1% of the population is Protestant, 3.6% of the population is Catholic, the rest of Hindu, Buddhist and primitive fetishism, etc..

 

[Capital] Jakarta (JAKARTA), a population of 8,965,000 (2006 census data).

 

[Head of State] President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono (Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono), took office on October 20, 2004, for a term to October 2009. In July 2009, the presidential elections in Indonesia, Susilo successful re-election.

 

[Important festivals] Islamic Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adha; May 20: National Awakening Day (commemorating the 1908 found of the Indonesian nationalist movement organizations "perfection Society"); August 17: Independence Day.

 

[Briefing] Indonesia is located in the southeast Asia, across the equator, bordering on Papua New Guinea, East Timor, and Malaysia and also facing Thailand, Singapore, Philippines, Australia, and other countries across the sea. It is the world's largest archipelago nation,which is composed of 17,508 large and small islands in the Pacific and the Indian Ocean, of which is about 6,000 islands are inhabited. It’s coastline is 54,716 kilometers (data from World Bank). It is tropical rainforest climate, with an average annual temperature of 25 - 27 .

 

Some dispersed dynasties were established since 3-7 century AD. The late 13th century and early 14th century Javanese the powerful Majapahit (Majapahit) feudal empire. Indonesia has been the invasion of Portugal, Spain and the United Kingdom during the 15th century. Netherlands established The Dutch East India Company which has the functions of the government in Indonesia in 1602 and began the colonial rule which more than 300 years. There was an invasion of Indonesia by Japan in 1942. After the surrender of Japan in 1945, the outbreak of the August revolution for national independence,and on August 17 Indonesia declared independence, and the established the Republic of Indonesia.

 

1945-1950, Indonesia has armed resistance to the invasion of the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. It has been forced to switch to the Federal Republic of Indonesia and join the Federation of Netherlands and Indonesia. It became the Republic of Indonesia again in August 1950,and in August 1954 broke away from the Federation of Netherlands and India.

 

[political]Caused by the full impact of the Asian financial crisis, Indonesia had a national turmoil. In May 1998, President Suharto who was in power for 32 years was resigned, Vice President Habibie took over as president. In October 1999, the Indonesian People's Consultative Assembly (referred to as the "Union") elected Wahid as president, Megawati as Vice President.On July 23, 2001, the special session of the Association of the removal of the President Wahid from office of dereliction of duty,and elected Megawati as President, Hamza Abkhaz as vice president. In July 2004, Indonesia held the first direct presidential election in the history. The Megawati cabinet Coordinating Minister for Political and Security Susilo of Ban Bang • Yudhoyono and the Coordinating Minister of People's Welfare Yusuf • Kara by two direct elections was elected president and vice president. They were sworn in on October 20 and hold office until October 2009. In July 2009, Indonesia held a presidential election, Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono and the central bank governor Boediono won 60.8% of the votes, was elected president and vice president, took office in October.

 

 [The Constitution] the current constitution is the 1945 Constitution,which was promulgated on August 18, 1945.On December 1949 and August 1950,it was respectively substitute for the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Indonesia and the Provisional Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia.On 1957 July 5,it was restored and from October 1999 to August 2002 four amendments has been passed. The Constitution defines Indonesia is a unitary republic country, the " Belief in the one and only God, Just and civilized humanity, The unity of Indonesia, Democracy guided by the inner wisdom in the unanimity arising out of deliberations amongst representatives and Social justice" is the founding of the five basic principles (referred to as the "Pancasila"). The implementation of the presidential system, the president is head of state and head of the executive and the armed forces supreme commander. In 2004, the president and vice president are no longer elected by the People's Consultative Assembly and replaced by people’s choice, and can only be re-elected once every term of five years. The President appoints the Cabinet which should have the consent of the Congress.

 

 

[Union] The full name is the People's Consultative Assembly. It is the National  Legislative Institution,which is composed by the Council of the People's Conference (Congress) and the council of local representatives. It is responsible for formulating, modifing, and promulgating the constitution and state policies, and supervise the president. If president is unconstitutional, it has the power to impeach and recall the president. Every five years has a general election. The current Union is found on October 1st, 2004 and it’s the first time elected by people. Inclouding 678 members, including 550 parliamentarians ,128 local representatives of the Council members, 1 Chairman,  and 3 Vice-Chairman.

 

[Congress] With the full name of the People's Congress,it’s a National Legislative Institution. It has the general legislative power but not the power of constitutional amendment and develop the state policies. Congress has no authority to relieve the presidency,and the President also can not announce the dissolution of the parliament; if the president was violation the Constitution, Congress has the power to recommend the Union investigating the president’s responsibility. The current Congress is found on October 1st, 2004 and it’s the first time elected by people. There are a total of 550 Members, and they also served as a member of the Union.It has a term of five years. There is a set of a Speaker, three Deputy Speaker.

[Local representative of the Council] It’s a new Legislative Institution which is established in October 2004.It is responsible for the legislative work in local autonomy, the relationship between central and local government, the division of local provinces and cities and national resource management. The members if the local representative of the Council from the 32 level one administrative regions in the country,and four representatives from each administrative region,which have a total of 128, they also served as a member of the Union. There is a set of Speaker, two of Deputy Speaker.

[Administrative divisions] There are 33 level one administrative regions in all, including Capital Territory of Jakarta (Jakarta), and two local SAR Yogyakarta (Yogyakarta) and Nangroe Aceh Darusalam (Nangroe Aceh Darusalam) ,and 30 provinces. The level two Administrative Region (county / city) 410.

 

[Judiciary] Indonesia has a three branches of government. The Supreme Court and the Supreme People's Procuratorate is independent from the legislative institution and civil service. The chief justice and deputy chief justice of the Supreme Court are nominated by the Congress, and appointed by the President. The appointment and dismissal of the chief procurator is given by the President. The current chief justice is Bagir Manan (Prof. Dr. BAGIR Manan), the chief procurator of the Supreme People's Procuratorate Abdurrahman SALEH (Abdurrahman SALEH).

 

[Political parties] The political party law in 1975 was only allow the presence of the three main political parties, professional groups, the Indonesian Democratic Party, the United Development Party. The party ban was released in May 1998. In January 28 1999, new political parties law was promulgated. It provides citizens who are 21 years old or above and have more than 50 people, who simply follow the principle that "no communism propaganda, no receiving foreign financial assistance, and do not offer the intelligence which would harm the national interests to foreign countries, do not engage in detrimental behavior in Indonesia friendly countries " can establish political parties.

 

[Economic] Indonesia is the largest economy in ASEAN. Agriculture, industry and services play important roles in the national economy. The manufacturing sector had a rapid rise in the mid-1980s. The service industry had a rapid development in the 1990s,and in 2001 it was accounted for nearly 40% of GDP. The service industry employs nearly one-third of the working population. The development of the economy was very slow in the early years, The average annual growth of GDP from 1950 to 1965 was only 2%. In the late 1960s, after the adjustment of economic structure, the economy began to accelerate, from 1970 to 1996,the average annual growth of GDP was 6%, among the middle-income countries. (Source: Center Bank of Indonesia, Indonesia's National Bureau of Statistics)

 

[Resource] Indonesia is rich in oil, gas and coal, tin, bauxite, nickel, copper, gold, silver and other minerals. To 2003,the proven reserves of oil is about 47.2 billion barrels and the potential reserves is about 50.24 billion barrels. in 2006, The oil is about 92.3 million barrels a day,and natural gas proven reserves is about 94.75 trillion cubic feet and the potential reserves is about 75.56 trillion cubic feet. Coal proven reserves is about 70 million tons. There was about 22.1 billion U.S. dollars  in oil and gas resources in export in 2007.

 

[Industry] The direction of industry development is to strengthen the export-oriented manufacturing. The growth rate of manufacturing is faster than the growth rate of the economic in recent years. The manufacturing took the 27.8% share of GDP in 2006. It employed 11.066 million of working population. The main sectors are mining, textile, light industry. The yield of tin, coal, nickel, gold, silver and other mineral at the forefron in the world. In 2005 ,there are 69,400 tons of tin, 1.2 million tons of coal, 3.707 million tons of nickel, 103.3 tons of gold, 262.6 tons of silver; The value of textile exports was about $ 9.597 billion in 2006 ;In 2006,the sales of domestic car is 310,000, decline 40.2% over a year-on-year.

 

(Source: 2006 Economic Report of Bank Indonesia, the Indonesian Ministry of Mines and Energy)

 

[Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry] Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry accounted for 14.1% of GDP in 2006. Its area of ​​33.84 million hectares of arable land (excluding Papua province). Rice production in 2006 was 54.4 million tons, 11.61 million tons of corn production, and soybean production of 749,000 tons. Indonesia is rich in economic crops.It’s yield of palm oil, rubber and pepper production are ranked second in the world. and in 2005 there were 16.09 million tons, 2.27 million tons and 7.8 million tons for each; coffee production is 321,000 tons, cocoa production is 590,000 tons in 2006. The annual output of palm oil was 17 million tons in 2007, and became the world's largest palm oil producing country. In 2008, Indonesia achieved food self-sufficiency.

 

Riching in fishery resources, the government estimated potential catch of 802 million tons / year, and the actual catch of 4.94 million tons in 2007.

 

In 2005 forest area is ​​127 million hectares (162 million hectares in the 1950s),which accounted for about 53% of the total land area. For the protection of forestry resources, Indonesia has announced a ban on the export of logs from 2002. Timber production was 9.43 million cubic meters in 2003. Wood products exports in 2006 of $ 2.89 billion. Timber production was 8.25 million cubic meters in 2008.

(Source: National Bureau of Statistics of Indonesia, the 2008 Economic Report of the Bank of Indonesia, Indonesia "compass" newspaper)

 

[Tourism] It is the second largest foreign exchange earner in Indonesia's non-oil and gas industry. The government attaches importance to the development of tourist attractions in a long time. They built new hotels, trained stuff and simplified the formalities. In 2007, foreign tourists throughout the year more than 550 million people, up to the highest level in history. There were a rapid growth in tourism in 2008, 789 million of foreign tourists to Indonesia,and domestic tourists reached 1979 million.

 

The main attractions are Bali, Borobudur, Beautiful Indonesia Miniature Park, Yogyakarta Sudan palace, dopa Lake.

 

(Source: Indonesian Culture and Tourism Ministry)

 

[Transportation]

Railway: narrow gauge, By the end of 2005, the length of national railway was 4644.1 km. The volume of passenger delivery was about 151 million people and 17.34 million tons of cargo were sent in 2005.

 

Road: By the end of 2005, the total length of National Highway was about 333,000 km;There were a total of 47,898,000 registered vehicles, including 7.355 million cars, 33,113,000 motorcycles, 4,630,000 trucks, 2,800,000buses.

 

Water transport: By the end of 2005,there are a total of 604 all kinds of ports, of which the state-owned port were 534. The ships which were used for river and sea transportation were near 6021. In 2005 domestic companies had finished throughput of international cargo of 24.599 million tons,and 114.46 million tons of domestic cargo. In 2008, the unloading volume of Jakarta Tanjung Priok International port, Surabaya's Tanjung Perak and Medan Belawan etc. five major ports was about 47.12 million tons, loading volume of 32.93 million tons, domestic passenger traffic was about 1.79 million passengers.

 

Air Transport: There were 991 all kinds of aircrafts in 2005. There were 190 civil airports, including 27 international airports,and 163 domestic airports. In 2005 domestic passenger traffic were 59.34 million passengers , 525,000 tons of cargo,and international passenger traffic of 22.32 million and 442,000 tons of cargo. The capibility of five major airports in Jakarta, Surabaya, Bali and other domestic airport were 2101 million people in 2008, 215,000 tons of cargo and international passenger traffic of 662 million people,and 156,000 tons of cargo.

 

Pipeline transportation: 530 km pipeline, It is about 13.22KL daily transport.

 

(Source: Indonesian Ministry of Transportation, the National Bureau of Statistics of Indonesia, the Indonesian Ministry of Mines and Energy)

 

[Finance] before the 1997 financial crisis has been the implementation of a balanced budget policy, accounts for a slight surplus. Implementation of a deficit budget in recent years, the government finances more difficult. Fiscal balances are as follows (Unit: trillion rupiah):

 

 

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

Total Income

301.9

341.1

403.8

491.6

637.8

708.5

Total Expenditure

344

374.4

430.0

511.9

670.6

757.2

budgetary deficit

2.5%

1.9%

1.3%

0.8%

1%

1.7%

 

(Source: 2007 Economic Report of the Bank Indonesia)

 

After the Asian financial crisis in 1997, Indonesia established the bank restructuring agency to  rectificat Banking which closed more than 60 banks and nationalizated 12 banks. Up to the end of 2003,there were totally 138 banks in all, including five state-owned banks, 26 local banks, 76 private banks, 20 joint-venture banks and 11 foreign banks. The main state-owned banks are Bank Mandiri (Bank Mandiri), the People's Bank, the main private banks are Bank Central Asia (BCA)  Bank Danamon (Bank Danamon), Bank Internasional Indonesia (BII). In September 2003, Bank Indonesia officially joined the Bank for International Settlements.

 

The total assets of banking in 2006 was about 1693.5 trillion, 832.9 trillion rupiah of total loans, non-performing loan rate (NPL) 7%. Bank Indonesia has signed bilateral currency swap agreements with China, Japan and South Korea in the framework of the Chiang Mai Initiative Multilateralisation,which were 40 billion, 12 billion and 10 billion U.S. dollars each. In March 2009, Bank Indonesia and China signed a bilateral currency swap agreements at the scale of 100 billion yuan.

 

(Source: Bank Indonesia)

 

Foreign trade occupies an important position in Indonesia national economy. The government took a series of measures to encourage and promote the non-oil and gas exports, and simplify export procedures, reduction of tariffs. Foreign trade amounted to $ 95.1 billion in 1997,and have a continuous decline in 1998 and 1999. Due to the export and domestic demand, foreign trade have a sharp increase of 32% in 2000. It was declined by the impact of the global economic slowdown in 2001 and 2002, return to growth in 2003 and 2004,and average annual growth rate was more than 10% in 2005-2007. In recent years, the foreign trade condition is as follows (Unit: millions of U.S. dollars):

 

Export Import difference

 

value of export

value of import

  balance

  2001

  56035

  30790

  25245

  2002

  57000

  31240

  25760

  2003

  61000

  32400

  28600

  2004

  69710

  34660

  35050

  2005

  85566

  57547

  28019

  2006

  102728

  79412

  23316

  2007

  114101

  74473

  39628

 

The main export products are oil, natural gas, textiles and clothing, wood, rattan products, handicrafts, shoes, copper, coal, pulp and paper products, electronics, palm oil and rubber etc..In 2007, the four largest trading partner were Japan, Singapore, China, the United States. The major import items are machinery and transport equipment, chemical products, motor vehicles and spare parts, power generation equipment, iron and steel, plastics and plastic products, cotton ect..

(Source: Indonesian Ministry of Trade)

 

[Foreign capital] foreign capital have an important role in promoting the economic development of Indonesia. The Indonesian government attaches importance to improve the investment environment to attract foreign investment. Year before the financial crisis to attract foreign investment of about $ 30 billion, dropped significantly after the financial crisis. 13.889 billion U.S. dollars of contracted foreign investment in 2006, 7.514 billion U.S. dollars of foreign capital actually utilized. In 2007, the contracted foreign investment of $ 40.145 billion, 10.349 billion U.S. dollars of foreign capital actually utilized. The main countries of origin of the actual investment for Singapore, the United Kingdom, South Korea, Japan. In 2008, 8.34 billion U.S. dollars of foreign direct investment.

(Source: 2006 Economic Report of Bank Indonesia, the Indonesian Investment Coordinating Committee)

 

[Foreign aid] US$43 billion in International Monetary Fund (IMF) aid in 2004 was sent as foreign aid to Indonesia, and this assistance has traditionally been an important part of the central government’s budget. From 1967 to 1991, most aid was coordinated through the Inter-Governmental Group on Indonesia (IGGI) founded and chaired by the Netherlands; since 1992, without the Netherlands, the organization has been known as the Consultative Group on Indonesia (CGI). Although Indonesia terminated its IMF aid program in December 2003, it still receives bilateral aid through the CGI, which pledged US$2.8 billion in grants and loans for 2004. Japan and the Asian Development Bank also have been key donors.

 

[People's lives] 1997 financial crisis, the decline in the standard of living of the people. The government has increased its relief efforts to study the establishment of a national social security system, while taking long-term measures to expand employment and to strengthen capacity building efforts to solve the structural problem of poverty. Poverty-stricken population of 39 million in 2006, 17.8% of the poverty rate. As of August 2008, the number of unemployed in Indonesia for 939 million people, the unemployment rate of 8.39%.

(Source: World Bank, IMF, ASEAN Statistical Yearbook, Bank Indonesia)

 

[Military]

Military branches:

 

Indonesian Armed Forces (Tentara Nasional Indonesia, TNI): Army (TNI-Angkatan Darat (TNI-AD)), Navy (TNI-Angkatan Laut (TNI-AL); includes marines (Korps Marinir, KorMar), naval air arm), Air Force (TNI-Angkatan Udara (TNI-AU)), National Air Defense Command (Kommando Pertahanan Udara Nasional (Kohanudnas)) (2011)

Military service age and obligation:

 

18 years of age for selective compulsory and voluntary military service; 2-year conscript service obligation, with reserve obligation to age 45 (officers); Indonesian citizens only (2008)

Military expenditures:

 

3% of GDP (2005 est.)

country comparison to the world: 41

 

People and Society :

Nationality:

 

noun: Indonesian(s)

adjective: Indonesian

Ethnic groups:

 

Javanese 40.6%, Sundanese 15%, Madurese 3.3%, Minangkabau 2.7%, Betawi 2.4%, Bugis 2.4%, Banten 2%, Banjar 1.7%, other or unspecified 29.9% (2000 census)

Languages:

 

Bahasa Indonesia (official, modified form of Malay), English, Dutch, local dialects (of which the most widely spoken is Javanese)

Religions:

 

Muslim 86.1%, Protestant 5.7%, Roman Catholic 3%, Hindu 1.8%, other or unspecified 3.4% (2000 census)

Population:

 

248,645,008 (July 2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 4

 

Urbanization:

 

urban population: 44% of total population (2010)

rate of urbanization: 1.7% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major cities - population:

 

JAKARTA (capital) 9.121 million; Surabaya 2.509 million; Bandung 2.412 million; Medan 2.131 million; Semarang 1.296 million (2009)

Health expenditures:

 

5.5% of GDP (2009)

country comparison to the world: 127

 

Major infectious diseases:

 

degree of risk: high

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: chikungunya, dengue fever, and malaria

note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2009)

Education expenditures:

 

2.8% of GDP (2008)

country comparison to the world: 139

Literacy:

 

definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 90.4%

male: 94%

female: 86.8% (2004 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):

 

total: 13 years

male: 13 years

female: 13 years (2009)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:

 

total: 22.2%

country comparison to the world: 41

male: 21.6%

female: 23% (2009)

 

Communications :

Telephones - main lines in use:

 

38.618 million (2011)

country comparison to the world: 8

Telephones - mobile cellular:

 

236.8 million (2011)

country comparison to the world: 5

Telephone system:

 

general assessment: domestic service includes an interisland microwave system, an HF radio police net, and a domestic satellite communications system; international service good

domestic: coverage provided by existing network has been expanded by use of over 200,000 telephone kiosks many located in remote areas; mobile-cellular subscribership growing rapidly

international: country code - 62; landing point for both the SEA-ME-WE-3 and SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cable networks that provide links throughout Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean)

Broadcast media:

There are 1,687 of all kinds of newspapers (1999). "Compass reported"," voz ", "Indonesian media reported"," Republic Daily "," innovation voz "and" Indonesia Business Daily; major Indonesian English-language newspaper: "Jakarta Post newspaper", "Indonesian Observer"; Chinese newspaper: it used to be only a government-sponsored "Indonesia Daily", in recent years, created "The International Daily"," World News "," Chinese Post "(Chinese and Indonesian translation) "Business Daily", "New Life Daily News, the Kuril Daily and" Sin Chew Daily ".

mixture of about a dozen national TV networks - 2 public broadcasters, the remainder private broadcasters - each with multiple transmitters; more than 100 local TV stations; widespread use of satellite and cable TV systems; public radio broadcaster operates 6 national networks as well as regional and local stations; overall, more than 700 radio stations with more than 650 privately-operated (2008)

Internet country code:

 

.id

Internet hosts:

 

1.344 million (2012)

country comparison to the world: 42

Internet users:

 

20 million (2009)

country comparison to the world: 22

 


Keyword: Indonesia Profile

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