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Philippine Profiles

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Tips:Country ProfileLOCATIONThe Philippines is an archipelago of 7,107 islands. It is bounded by the South China Sea in the W
Country Profile 
LOCATION
 
The Philippines is an archipelago of 7,107 islands. It is bounded by the South China Sea in the West, the Pacific Ocean in the east, the Sulu and Celebes Sea in the south, and the Bashi Channel in the north. The northernmost tip of the country is 241 kilometers south of Taiwan while the southernmost tip is just 14.4 kilometers north of Borneo.
 
 
AREA
 
The total land area of the archipelago is approximately 300,000 square kilometers. The three largest island groups are Luzon with an area of 141,395 square kilometers, Visayas with 56,606 kilometers, and Mindanao with 101,999 square kilometers.
 
The archipelago is further subdivided into regions, provinces, cities, municipalities and barangays. There are 16 regions, including the National Capital Region (NCR), the Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR), CARAGA and the Autonomous Region In Muslim Mindanao (ARMM). Metropolitan Manila has been designated as the National Capital Region and is composed of the cities of Manila, Quezon, Pasay, Mandaluyong, Caloocan, Makati, Pasig, Muntinlupa, Las Pinas, Marikina, Valenzuela and Paranaque and the municipalities of Malabon, Navotas, Pateros, San Juan, and Taguig.
 
There are 79 provinces, 113 cities, 1,496 municipalities and 41,943 barangays.
 
 
CAPITAL
Manila
 
CLIMATE
 
The climate is tropical. The rainy season is from June to October, the cool dry season is from November to February, and the hot dry season is from March to May. Temperatures range from 21 to 32, with the average at 27. Average humidity year round is 77%. All regions are exposed to typhoons, which are prevalent during the rainy season.
 
 
POPULATION
 
The Philippines has total population of 9401M(2011)
 
 
LANGUAGE
 
The national language is Pilipino, derived mostly from Tagalog. There are about 70 other local languages and dialects spoken. The major ones are Cebuano, Ilocano, Hiligaynon, Bicol, Waray, Pangasinense, Pampango and Maranao. English is widely spoken and understood. Spanish and Chinese are still spoken by a minority.
 
 
BRIEF HISTORY
 
Filipino society and culture were fairly well developed prior to contacts with other countries as documented from archeological artifacts recovered.
 
Some 500 years before Ferdinand Magellan set foot in the Philippines, the Filipinos had commercial relations with China, Indo-China, Malaysia, India and Arabian countries. Chinese silk, porcelain, jars, gold, ivory, and beads were traded for wax, bird’s nest, teakwood, rattan, pearls, precious stones and other marine and forest products.
 
On March 16, 1521, Ferdinand Magellan claimed the Philippines for the Spanish crown and brought great changes in the political, social and cultural life of the people. Christianity was introduced and centralized government was established. By the beginning of the 17th century, Spain’s sovereignty over the Philippines had been fully established. Spain’s rule for over three centuries was marked by sporadic revolts.
 
The first Filipino revolt was led by Lakandula, the last King of Manila, in 1574 to castigate the Spaniards because of their reneged promise to exempt the Filipinos from tribute and forced labor. The revolt was terminated when the Filipinos were promised better treatment. Many of the revolts were caused by the people’s desire to win back their freedom and others were prompted by Spanish oppression.
 
The bloody climax of Filipino struggle for freedom was the Revolution of 1896, which was also the culmination of revolts against Spanish rule. The national hero Dr. Jose Rizal led a reform movement in the 1880s, which eventually led to the 1896 revolution. Dr. Rizal was tried in Manila and was sentenced to die by musketry.
 
His death fuelled the fires of revolution and on June 12, 1898, leaders of the revolution declared the country a sovereign state and proclaimed the first Republic of the Philippines.
 
While the revolution embroiled the country, Spain declared war against the United States because of the latter’s intervention over Cuba’s fight for independence. Cuba was then a colony of Spain. Spain was defeated and on December 10, 1898, the Philippines was formally ceded to the United States by virtue of the Treaty of Paris. The occupation of the American was resented by the Filipinos and the outcome was the Filipino-American War which lasted for three years.
 
After several attempts of Filipino patriots to secure an act to grant independence from the United States, the Philippines was able to obtain the approval of the Tydings-McDuffie Independence Act, which provided for the establishment of a Commonwealth government to end after a ten-year period, and the adoption of a Constitution. A Constitutional Convention drafted the Constitution which was ratified on May 14, 1935. The election of Commonwealth officials followed, with Manuel L. Quezon as President, and Sergio Osmena as Vice President. On November 15, 1935, the new officials assumed office and thus began the ten-year period of self-government.
 
This was interrupted when the Philippines was drawn into a war in the Pacific as an ally of the Americans against the Japanese. Japanese troops occupied Manila in 1942 and for three years, the Filipinos suffered the ravages of war.
 
The liberation of the country was fully attained in February 1945, marking the start of the country’s massive rehabilitation and rebuilding out of the devastation brought about by the war.
 
On July 4, 1946, a year after the end of the war, the American flag was lowered and the Philippine flag was hoisted, signaling the recognition of Philippine Independence from the U.S.
 
 
GOVERNMENT
 
The Republic of the Philippines, a democratic and republican state, has a presidential form of government under a new Constitution promulgated in 1986 and ratified by the people on February 2, 1987
 
The 1986 Constitution provided for a tripartite system: the Executive, represented by a President elected by direct vote of the people for a six-year term; the Legislative, represented by a bicameral Congress, composed of the Senate and the House of Representatives; and a Judiciary, with the power of judicial review.
 
Executive power is vested in the President, who is assisted by the Cabinet. The President is the head of the Cabinet, which is responsible for formulating key policies and carrying out executive functions. The President is the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces.
 
The Congress has exclusive lawmaking powers. The Senate has 24 Senators elected at large and the House of Representatives has 219 Congressmen elected by district and by party list. The Judiciary is composed of the Supreme Court, the Court of Appeals and other inferior courts. The Supreme Court has a Chief Justice and 14 Associate Justices appointed by the President.
 
 
RELIGION
 
The predominant religion is Roman Catholicism. Roman Catholics make up nearly 85 percent of the population. The other religions are Protestantism and Islam.
 
 
CURRENCY
 
The official monetary unit is the peso. The exchange rate varies from day to day. As of 2010, one US dollar fetched P 43
 
ECONOMY
 
PHILIPPINES is export oriented economy. It’s tertiary industry is outstanding in national economy.It’s agriculture and manufacturing industry are also accounted for a considerable proportion of. Because of the open-door policy in late nineteen sixties, PHILIPPINES attracts foreign capital actively, it’s economic has obtained a remarkable result. Late in 1980s ,because of western economy recession and its effect on economic development of political unrest, PHILIPPINES’s ecomony is slowing down. At the beginning of the 90's, Ramos government adopted a series of measures to revive the economy, economy begins to anabiosis in the round, and to maintain a relatively high growth rate. In 1997,though the outbreak of the Asian financial crisis on phenanthrene impact is not big, but the economic growth is slowing down again. After President Aquino came to power,he increased revenue,reduced expenditure and increased the investment in agriculture and infrastructure construction. And he has also expanded domestic demand and exports. International payments have been improved,which make the economy maintain to growth fast. In 2010 it’s GDP growth reached 7.3%, achieved nearly twenty-four years best level. But there is still a lot of deep-seated problems in the Philippine economy structure. It’s still make a lot effects on financial reform and economic development. The main economic data are as follows:
Gross domestic product ( 2010): $1887billion
The per capita GDP ( 2010): $2007
The growth rate of GDP ( 2010): 7.3%
Name of currency: Peso ( Peso )
Exchange rate ( 2010) : 1 US dollar = 43 Peso
The rate of inflation ( 2010): 3.8%
Unemployment rate ( 2011 April): 7.2% 
【Media】Major daily newspaper in the English language: "Manila Bulletin", "Philippine Star", "Philippine Daily asked daily,","  Free Press", "The Manila Times", "Manila Chronicle". Philippine language daily: "Izvestia", "Philippines Letters". Chinese Daily: "World News", "Business Daily", "Chinatown News", "United Daily News" and "Global Daily."
 
 


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