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Brunei Profiles

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Tips:1,The Brief of BruneiBilateral RelationsFirst bilateral political relations and important contactsChina and Brunei estab
 1,The Brief of Brunei

Bilateral Relations

First bilateral political relations and important contacts

China and Brunei established diplomatic relations in September 30, 1991, bilateral relations have been developing smoothly. There are firendly contacts and cooperation in all fields which spread out stage by stage. Qian Qichen ,the State Councilor and Minister of Foreign Affairs ( 1992), Luo Gan the state councilor ( 1995), Xie Fei the vice-chairman of committee (1998 ), Jiang Zemin the President ( 2000), Li Peng the chairman of committee (2001 ), Zhu Rongji the Premier ( 2001), Wu Yi the Vice- Premier ( 2005), Gu Xiulian the vice-chairman of committee ( 2007) have visited Brunei or attended meetings there. In 2005 April, President Hu Jintao paid a state visit to Brunei. And in September, Vice Premier Wu Yi wen paid a visit. In 2007 June, vice chairman of the Committee of the National People's Congress Gu Xiulian attended The Second China-ASEAN Conference of Friendship Organizations and paid a visit. In 2008 january, vice chairman of the Military Commission of the Central Committee of the CPC, State Councilor and Defense Minister Cao Gangchuan visited Brunei. In 2008 February, Foreign Minister Yang Jiechi visited Brunei. In 2009 January, vice chairman of the Committee of the National People's Congress Zhou Tienong visited Brunei. In 2010 January, State Councilor Dai Bingguo visited Brunei.

The Sultan of Brunei Hassanal Bolkiah paid visites in 1993, 1999 and 2004. In 2001 May and October he came to China to attend the APEC human resources ability construction Summit and APEC informal leadership meeting. In 2006 October he attended the Commemorative Summit Marking Anniversary of China - ASEAN relations. In 2008 August and October he attended the opening ceremony of the Beijing Olympics and the seventh ASEM summit. The crown prince Bela, foreign minister Prince Mohamed Bolkiah and sister of Sultan,the Ministry of foreign affairs and trade and ambassador-at-large Masna princess have visited china. 2010 May, foreign minister Prince Mohamed Bolkiah attend the Shanghai World Expo on the Brunei National Pavilion day.

In 1993, the foreign ministries of the two countries established a regular consultation system. There has been 14 consultations so far.

 

 

2 Two, economic and trade relations

During the early years of diplomatic relationship, the bilateral economic and trade cooperation progress is very slow. Since 2000, China has begun to import large quantities of crude oil from Brunei, the volume of bilateral trade rises considerably. In 2008 May, the two countries held its first economic and trade consultation. In September,the Administration of Ocean and Fisheries of Guangdong Province and the Ministry of industry and primary resources Fishery Bureau of Brunei have signed memorandum of understanding on cooperation in fisheries. In October, Chinese Ministry of industry and information technology and the Ministry of transportation of Brunei on has signed a memorandum of understanding on strengthening cooperation in information communication field. In 2010 the volume of bilateral trade is 1030000000 dollar which growed 143% compared with the same period. And China exports 383000000 dollar,which grows 161.8% compared to the same period and import 658000000 dollar, grow 133.3% which compared to the same period. In 2010 1-3 month, the volume of bilateral trade is about 212000000 dollar, grow 411.5% compared to the same period. And the volume of China’s export is about 35000000 U.S. dollars which is up 36.2%,and the volume of import is about 177000000 dollar,which grow 1020.1%. China mainly imports crude oil from Brinei, and mainly export textiles, building materials and other plastic products and so on.

In 2003 August, Huawei Company has signed a contract which worth more than $20million about Fixed telephone network with telecommunication administration of Brunei. It is a largest technological cooperation project so far. At the beginning of 2005, Huawei Company again won the contract of The third generation mobile communication network equipment which worth $1670 million.Beside, ZTE Corporation took part in the project of the third generation mobile communication network nationwide coverage and application.

The two countries have signed " the encouragement and reciprocal protection of investment agreement " ( 2000), " avoidance of double taxation and the prevention of fiscal evasion with respect to the agreement " (2004 ), " to promote trade, investment and economic cooperation memorandum of understanding " ( 2004), " agricultural collaboration memorandum of understanding " ( 2009).

3 Cooperation and comumication in other fields

The cooperation and communication between two countries in civil aviation, health, culture, tourism, sports, education, military, judicial cooperation ect. have carried out step by step. They have signed the " Civil Air Transport Agreement " ( 1993), " Health Cooperation Memorandum of Understanding " ( 1996), " Cultural Cooperation Memorandum of Understanding " ( 1999), " Chinese Citizens At Their Own Expense to the Tourism Plan Memorandum of Understanding " ( 2000), " Higher Education Cooperation Memorandum of Understanding " ( 2004), " Tourism Cooperation Memorandum of Understanding " ( 2006). The two countries in 2002 and 2004 respectively, signed the " Cooperation Between Supreme People’s Procuratorate of the People’s Republic of China and Brunei Darussalam Procuratorate Agreement " and the " The Supreme Court memorandum of understanding ". In 2010 March, Royal BruneiAirlines reopens the route between Bandar Seri Begawan and Shanghai.

In September 2003 Liang guanglie a member of the Central Military Commission and chief of the general staff paid a visit to Brunei and signed a “On the Military Exchanges Memorandum of Understanding”. On November, Brunei was first visit by the Chinese naval fleet. In 2004 September, Brunei armed forces commander Major-General Harbi visited China. In 2005 October, Vice Minister of Defence of Brunei Darussalam Jasmin paied a visit. In 2006, July to August, Band of the Chinese people's Liberation Army participated in the Sultan of Brunei International Festival 60 birthday celebration. On 2007, Chinese and  Brunei set military section each other. In 2008 January, vice chairman of the Central Military Commission, State Councilor and Minister of Defense Cao Gangchuan paid a visit to Brunei. On September, Brunei armed forces commander Major-General Harbi 's visited to China and watch the " whets soldier -2008 " military exercise. In 2009 February, the Chinese people's Liberation Army Deputy Chief of staff Ge Zhenfeng visited Brunei. On August, Chinese people's Liberation Army Navy Fleet Commander admiral SuZhiQian visited Brunei with " Guangzhou" missile destroyer to attended BRIDEX.

Since 2003 July, China gives Brunei citizens who hold ordinary passport and travel to China, give business visa 15 days treatment. In 2005 June, the two countries’ agreement on mutual exemption of visa holders of diplomatic, official passport personnel exchange of letters has taken effect.

In 2004,2005, in China - Brunei Friendship Association and China- Brunei Friendship Association were set up.

Four, Important bilateral documents

In 1991 September, foreign minister Qian Qichen and Brunei foreign minister Prince Mohamed Bolkiah in New York signed the " Joint Communiqué Between the People's Republic of China and Brunei Darussalam ".

In 1999 August, the Sultan of Brunei paid a working visit to China, both sides issued joint communiqu on the relations between the two countries future directions.

In 2005 April, President Hu Jintao paid a state visit to Brunei, both sides issued a joint communiqu.

Country profiles

The Brunei Darussalam ( Negara Brunei Darussalam ).

[Area]  5765 square kilometers.

[Population] 414400 people ( 2010). Among the Malays accounted for 66.4%, Chinese 11%, other races accounted for 4%. Malay is the national language, English is in common use, Mandarin is widely use. Islam is the state religion, and there are also Christianity, Buddhism, Taoism and others.

[Capital] The capital city is Bandar Seri Begawan. It’s located in the Brunei - Muara District, and convers an area of 15.8 square kilometers. It has a population of about 60000. Formerly known as Brunei city. It has been capital since Seventeenth Century. Current name has been using from October 4, 1970 to now.

[Head of the State] Sultan Haji HASSANAL BOLKIAH Mu'izzaddin Waddaulah, who successed in October 5, 1967.

[Important festivals] Brunei Independence Day: January 1st. National Day: February 23rd. The birthday of current Sultan of Brunei Haji Hassanal Bolkiah: July 15th. Brunei is a nation of Islam, Eid al-Fitr is the most grand festival in each year, and the date is changed according to the Islamic Calendar.

[Overview] Brunei is located in the northwest of KalimantanIsland. It’s north face to the South China Sea, It’s is surrounded by Malaysia's Sarawak in east, west and south, and separated into two parts by Limbang. It’s coastline is about 162 kilometers. There are 33 islands, the coastal is plain, and the mainland is mountainous. It’s a tropical rainforest climate,it’s hot all year round.The annual average temperature is 28° C.

In ancient time it is called Po-ni. By the middle of the fourteenth Century,with the spread of Islam,a kingdom of Sultan is established. At the beginning of the Sixteenth Century it is in the most powerful period. In mid of Sixteenth Century, Portugal, Spain, Holland, Britain and other countries invade one after another. 1888 it became a British protectorate state. In 1941 Brunei was occupated by the Japanese. In 1946 Britain resumed it’s control to Brunei. In 1971 Brunei signed a treaty with British on home rule except for foreign and defense affairs. In January 1st, 1984 Brunei was completely independent.

[Politics] At the time of Independence sultan declarated that Brunei is always a sovereignty, independent and democratic Malay Islamic monarchy. Since independence, the government of Sultan has carried out" the more Malay, more Islamic and monarchy" policy energetically and consolidated the royal rule, and focused on supporting the Malay and other indigenous economy. They are modernizating their country while they maintain Islamic doctrine strictly. The country 's domestic political is stable, but in recent years the problem of security of society increase. In 2005, the power of Sultan and the ruling basisis is strengthen, consolidated and expanded by the cabinet reshuffle and reorganization legislation .

[Government]

Country name:

 

 

conventional long form: Brunei Darussalam

conventional short form: Brunei

local long form: Negara Brunei Darussalam

local short form: Brunei

Government type:

 

 

constitutional sultanate (locally known as Malay Islamic Monarchy)

Capital:

 

 

name: Bandar Seri Begawan

geographic coordinates: 4 53 N, 114 56 E

time difference: UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:

 

 

4 districts (daerah-daerah, singular - daerah); Belait, Brunei-Muara, Temburong, Tutong

Independence:

 

 

1 January 1984 (from the UK)

National holiday:

 

 

National Day, 23 February (1984); note - 1 January 1984 was the date of independence from the UK, 23 February 1984 was the date of independence from British protection

Constitution:

 

 

29 September 1959 (some provisions suspended under a State of Emergency since December 1962, others since independence on 1 January 1984)

Legal system:

 

 

mixed legal system based on English common law and Islamic law

International law organization participation:

 

 

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt

Suffrage:

 

 

18 years of age for village elections; universal

Executive branch:

 

 

chief of state: Sultan and Prime Minister Sir HASSANAL Bolkiah (since 5 October 1967); note - the monarch is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: Sultan and Prime Minister Sir HASSANAL Bolkiah (since 5 October 1967)

cabinet: Council of Cabinet Ministers appointed and presided over by the monarch; deals with executive matters; note - there is also a Religious Council (members appointed by the monarch) that advises on religious matters, a Privy Council (members appointed by the monarch) that deals with constitutional matters, and the Council of Succession (members appointed by the monarch) that determines the succession to the throne if the need arises

(For more information visit the World Leaders website )

elections: none; the monarchy is hereditary

Legislative branch:

 

 

the Sultan appointed a Legislative Council with 29 members in September 2005; he increased the size of the council to 33 members in June 2011; the council meets annually in March

elections: last held in March 1962 (date of next election NA)

note: the Legislative Council met on 25 September 2004 for first time in 20 years with 21 members appointed by the Sultan; it passed constitutional amendments calling for a 45-seat council with 15 elected members; no timeframe for an election was announced

Judicial branch:

 

 

Supreme Court - chief justice and judges are sworn in by monarch for three-year terms; Judicial Committee of Privy Council in London is final court of appeal for civil cases; Sharia courts deal with Islamic laws (2006)

Political parties and leaders:

 

 

National Development Party or NDP [YASSIN Affendi]

note: Brunei National Solidarity Party or PPKB [Abdul LATIF bin Chuchu] and People's Awareness Party or PAKAR [Awang Haji MAIDIN bin Haji Ahmad] were deregistered in 2007; parties are small and have limited activity

International organization participation:

 

 

ADB, APEC, ARF, ASEAN, C, CP, EAS, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, NAM, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIFIL, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Flag description:

yellow with two diagonal bands of white (top, almost double width) and black starting from the upper hoist side; the national emblem in red is superimposed at the center; yellow is the color of royalty and symbolizes the sultanate; the white and black bands denote Brunei's chief ministers; the emblem includes five main components: a swallow-tailed flag, the royal umbrella representing the monarchy, the wings of four feathers symbolizing justice, tranquility, prosperity, and peace, the two upraised hands signifying the government's pledge to preserve and promote the welfare of the people, and the crescent moon denoting Islam, the state religion; the state motto "Always render service with God's guidance" appears in yellow Arabic script on the crescent; a ribbon below the crescent reads "Brunei, the Abode of Peace"

[Economy]

Economy - overview:

 

 

Brunei has a small well-to-do economy that encompasses a mixture of foreign and domestic entrepreneurship, government regulation, welfare measures, and village tradition. Crude oil and natural gas production account for just over half of GDP and more than 90% of exports. Per capita GDP is among the highest in Asia, and substantial income from overseas investment supplements income from domestic production. The government provides for all medical services and free education through the university level and subsidizes rice and housing. A new monetary authority was established in January 2011 with responsibilities that include monetary policy, monitoring of financial institutions, and currency trading activities.

GDP (purchasing power parity):

 

 

$21.03 billion (2011 est.)

country comparison to the world: 127

$20.58 billion (2010 est.)

$20.06 billion (2009 est.)

note: data are in 2011 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):

 

 

$16.1 billion (2011 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:

 

 

2.2% (2011 est.)

country comparison to the world: 142

2.6% (2010 est.)

-1.8% (2009 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):

 

 

$49,500 (2011 est.)

country comparison to the world: 9

$49,700 (2010 est.)

$49,400 (2009 est.)

note: data are in 2011 US dollars

GDP - composition by sector:

 

 

agriculture: 0.8%

industry: 67%

services: 32.3% (2011 est.)

Labor force:

 

 

198,800 (2010 est.)

country comparison to the world: 170

Labor force - by occupation:

 

 

agriculture: 4.2%

industry: 62.8%

services: 33% (2008 est.)

Unemployment rate:

 

 

2.7% (2010)

country comparison to the world: 20

3.7% (2008)

Population below poverty line:

 

 

NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:

 

 

lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Budget:

 

 

revenues: $7.234 billion

expenditures: $4.929 billion (2011 est.)

Taxes and other revenues:

 

 

44.9% of GDP (2011 est.)

country comparison to the world: 35

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):

 

 

14.3% of GDP (2011 est.)

country comparison to the world: 5

Inflation rate (consumer prices):

 

 

2% (2011 est.)

country comparison to the world: 28

0.4% (2010 est.)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:

 

 

5.5% (31 December 2011 est.)

country comparison to the world: 149

5.5% (31 December 2010 est.)

Stock of narrow money:

 

 

$3.254 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

country comparison to the world: 113

$2.954 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Stock of broad money:

 

 

$10.64 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

country comparison to the world: 104

$9.731 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:

 

 

$4.032 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

country comparison to the world: 119

$3.019 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:

 

 

$NA

Agriculture - products:

 

 

rice, vegetables, fruits; chickens, water buffalo, cattle, goats, eggs

Industries:

 

 

petroleum, petroleum refining, liquefied natural gas, construction

Industrial production growth rate:

 

 

-5.4% (2008 est.)

country comparison to the world: 162

Current account balance:

 

 

$3.977 billion (2009 est.)

country comparison to the world: 34

$3.977 billion (2009 est.)

Exports:

 

 

$10.67 billion (2008)

country comparison to the world: 90

$8.25 billion (2007)

Exports - commodities:

 

 

crude oil, natural gas, garments

Exports - partners:

 

 

Japan 45.2%, South Korea 15.9%, Australia 11.4%, Indonesia 8.1%, India 5.7%, China 4.4% (2011)

Imports:

 

 

$2.61 billion (2008 est.)

country comparison to the world: 151

$2.055 billion (2007 est.)

Imports - commodities:

 

 

machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, food, chemicals

Imports - partners:

 

 

Singapore 27.4%, India 15.4%, China 12.8%, South Korea 10.1%, Malaysia 9.4%, Germany 7.9% (2011)

Debt - external:

 

 

$0 (2005)

country comparison to the world: 204

Exchange rates:

 

 

Bruneian dollars (BND) per US dollar -

1.2579 (2011)

1.3635 (2010 est.)

1.45 (2009)

Fiscal year:

1 April - 31 March

[Energy]

Electricity - production:

 

 

3.395 billion kWh (2009 est.)

country comparison to the world: 126

Electricity - consumption:

 

 

3.177 billion kWh (2009 est.)

country comparison to the world: 131

Electricity - exports:

 

 

0 kWh (2010 est.)

country comparison to the world: 170

Electricity - imports:

 

 

0 kWh (2010 est.)

country comparison to the world: 166

Electricity - installed generating capacity:

 

 

759,000 kW (2009 est.)

country comparison to the world: 128

Electricity - from fossil fuels:

 

 

100% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)

country comparison to the world: 10

Electricity - from nuclear fuels:

 

 

0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)

country comparison to the world: 58

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:

 

 

0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)

country comparison to the world: 162

Electricity - from other renewable sources:

 

 

0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)

country comparison to the world: 116

Crude oil - production:

 

 

149,900 bbl/day (2011 est.)

country comparison to the world: 44

Crude oil - exports:

 

 

141,300 bbl/day (2009 est.)

country comparison to the world: 35

Crude oil - imports:

 

 

0 bbl/day (2009 est.)

country comparison to the world: 165

Crude oil - proved reserves:

 

 

1.1 billion bbl (1 January 2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 41

Refined petroleum products - production:

 

 

14,720 bbl/day (2008 est.)

country comparison to the world: 101

Refined petroleum products - consumption:

 

 

14,640 bbl/day (2011 est.)

country comparison to the world: 146

Refined petroleum products - exports:

 

 

0 bbl/day (2008 est.)

country comparison to the world: 160

Refined petroleum products - imports:

 

 

1,016 bbl/day (2008 est.)

country comparison to the world: 194

Natural gas - production:

 

 

11.8 billion cu m (2010 est.)

country comparison to the world: 41

Natural gas - consumption:

 

 

2.97 billion cu m (2010 est.)

country comparison to the world: 74

Natural gas - exports:

 

 

8.83 billion cu m (2010 est.)

country comparison to the world: 23

Natural gas - imports:

 

 

0 cu m (2010 est.)

country comparison to the world: 168

Natural gas - proved reserves:

 

 

390.8 billion cu m (1 January 2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 35

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:

 

 

8.271 million Mt (2010 est.)

country comparison to the world: 107

[Communications]

Telephones - main lines in use:

 

 

79,800 (2011)

country comparison to the world: 151

Telephones - mobile cellular:

 

 

443,200 (2011)

country comparison to the world: 167

Telephone system:

 

 

general assessment: service throughout the country is good; international service is good to Southeast Asia, Middle East, Western Europe, and the US

domestic: every service available

international: country code - 673; landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-3 optical telecommunications submarine cable that provides links to Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; the Asia-America Gateway submarine cable network, scheduled for completion by late 2008, will provide new links to Asia and the US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean) (2011)

Broadcast media:

 

 

state-controlled Radio Television Brunei (RTB) operates 4 channels; 3 Malaysian TV stations are available; foreign TV broadcasts are available via satellite and cable systems; RTB operates 5 radio networks and broadcasts on multiple frequencies; British Forces Broadcast Service (BFBS) provides radio broadcasts on 2 FM stations; some radio broadcast stations from Malaysia are available via repeaters (2009)

Internet country code:

 

 

.bn

Internet hosts:

 

 

49,457 (2012)

country comparison to the world: 96

Internet users:

 

 

314,900 (2009)

country comparison to the world: 128

[Media] Brunei News is the only official news agency,which was founded in 1959. Major newspapers: "Borneo communique" Daily News (British Malai Wen), daily circulation of 70,000 copies; "Brunei lighthouse Daily News", weekly (Malai Wen), every Wednesday publication, circulation of 45,000 copies; Malaysian Chinese Daily "Miri Ribao See Hua Daily News", "international Times" and "Sin Chew Daily" features the Brunei News edition, issued in Brunei.

[Transportation]

 

 

Airports:

 

 

1 (2012)

country comparison to the world: 220

Airports - with paved runways:

 

 

total: 1

over 3,047 m: 1 (2012)

Heliports:

 

 

3 (2012)

Pipelines:

 

 

condensate 33 km; gas 37 km; oil 18 km (2010)

Roadways:

 

 

total: 3,029 km

country comparison to the world: 166

paved: 2,425 km

unpaved: 604 km (2010)

Waterways:

 

 

209 km (navigable by craft drawing less than 1.2 m; the Belait, Brunei, and Tutong rivers are major transport links) (2012)

country comparison to the world: 97

Merchant marine:

 

 

total: 9

country comparison to the world: 115

by type: chemical tanker 1, liquefied gas 8

foreign-owned: 2 (UK 2) (2010)

Ports and terminals:

Lumut, Muara, Seria

[Military]

Military branches:

 

 

Royal Brunei Armed Forces: RoyalBruneiLand Forces, Royal Brunei Navy, Royal Brunei Air Force (Tentera Udara Diraja Brunei) (2012)

Military expenditures:

 

 

4.5% of GDP (2006)

country comparison to the world: 20

 


Keyword: Brunei Profiles

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